Bowlby's theory is derived from the idea of imprinting that was bought about by Konrad Lorenz when researching geese. Bowlby states that infants maintain close proximity to their caregiver in order to improve their chances of survival in an evolutionary context. Through the use of 'socal releasers' they are able to ensure that the caregiver becomes attached to them.
The critical period that Bowbly mentions is between 0 and 3 years, in which they must attach to a primary caregiver/ one person (monotropy).
If this attachment does not form, there are serious adverse affects to the infants soial development and ability to form future relationships.
Separation protest is an adaptive response and this has been developed to help the hild to be protected and increase their chances of survival.
Bowlby also believed that the first attachment provides an internal working model that influences the childs future relationships. (the continuity hypothesis)
Evaluation Points :)
Supported by evidence from Lorenz who found that geese were born with the ability to imprint and did so on the first person/ thing that they saw.
There are important implications as if the first three years are so important then should they be able to put the child into childcare?
Bowlby also found evidence to suggest that the critical period was as important as first stated, in his 44 theives study he found that those that did not form an early attachment were more likely to become juvenile delinquents.
Although supported by Lorenz, it can be said to have methodological issues as it is simplistic to believe that the findings of geese can be applied to human behaviour.
His view is also overemphasised in the role of the mother during attachment as the father does not come into account ... bought up by father?
It is also reductionist to assume that it is only through nature not nurture.