- Tension & rivalry - especially 'Panslavism' (the nationalism which wanted the little nation of the Balkans to be able to rule themselves) and Alliances (espically Russia's alliance with Serbia).
- Treaty of Berlin (1878), Austria-Hungary had the right to occupy and administer Bosnia.
- Turkey was weak and corrupt - 'the sick man of Europe'. in 1908 there was a revolution in Turkey.
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- 1908, Austria fully annexed Bosnia.
- Serbia - which had been hoping to get part of Bosnia protested.
- Serbia called up its army demanded a strip of land across Bosnia to the Adriatic sea.
- Serbia was supported by Russia, which proposed a conference.
- Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Germany said that a Conference wasn't necessary. There was an international crisis.
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- There was an international crisis - Germany threatened war.
- Russia and Serbia were forced to back down and humiliated. Serbia was forced to agree publicly to Austria's annexation.
- Kaiser boasted that he had stood by Austria 'in shining armour'.
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- There was more trouble in the Balkans (Balkans war) in 1912-13.
- Serbia was furious (Bosnia included many Serbs). This led to the assassination of Sarajavo, 1914.
- Russia vowed not back down again - which led to Nicholas's decsion to mobilise in 1914.
- Wilhelm was proud he had helped Austria - so after Sarajevo he gave Austria a 'blank cheque' .... which helped cause the slide to war in 1914.
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