Biology- Carbohyrates

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WHAT IS A MONOSACCHARIDE?

A single sugar ('a carbohydrate version of a monomer)/ a single monomer

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WHAT ARE THE THREE ELEMENTS IN CARBOHYDRATES?

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

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WHAT IS A DISACCHARIDE?

Two monosaccharides combined together

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WHAT IS A POLYSACCHARIDE?

Many monosaccharides combined together ('a carbohydrate form of a polymer)

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WHEN AND WHAT HAPPENS IN A CONDENSATION REACTION?

A condensation reaction happens when 2 monosaccharides join together and molecule of water (H20) is removed

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WHEN AND WHAT HAPPENS IN HYDROLYSIS

Hydrolysis happens when a disaccharide is broken back into its monosaccharide units, and it is where a molecule of water (H2O) is put into the bonds to break them

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WHAT IS THE BOND BETWEEN TWO JOINED MONOSACCHARIDE

A glycosidic bond

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WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF MONOSACCHARIDES?

They are sweet-tasting, soluble, an crystallizable

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WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF POLYSACCHARIDES?

The are not  sweet tasting, insoluble, and not crystallizable

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WHAT ARE THE 3 MONOSACCHARIDES?

Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

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WHAT ARE THE 3 DISACCHARIDES?

Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose

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WHAT ARE THE 3 POLYSACCHARIDES?

Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose

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WHAT IS THE GENERAL FORMULA FOR GLUCOSE?

C6H12O6

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WHAT DO WE USE TO TEST FOR REDUCING SUGAR?

Benedict's Reagent (Solution) -Copper Sulphate

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WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF THE REDUCING SUGAR TEST?

Blue- none

Green- Very Low

Yellow- Low

Orange- Medium

Red- High

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HOW DO WE TEST FOR NON-REDUCING SUGARS?

Do the same test as for reducing sugars, just to make sure that it is non-reducing.

Then with a different sample, add an equal amount of hydrochloric acid to the sample and heat for 5 minutes, which is to hydrolyse the disaccharide into its original monosaccharide units.

Then add sodium hydrocarbonate to the solution, to neutralize the acid

Then re-test it with Benedict's Reagent and heat it again- the solution should go orange-brown

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WHY DO WE ADD SODIUM HYDROCARBONATE IN THE NON-RED

To neutralize the acid because Benedict's reagent does not work in acidic conditions

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WHAT IS THE TEST FOR STARCH?

Add 'iodine in potassium iodide' to the sample and it should turn blue-black

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