WHAT IS A MONOSACCHARIDE?
A single sugar ('a carbohydrate version of a monomer)/ a single monomer
WHAT ARE THE THREE ELEMENTS IN CARBOHYDRATES?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
WHAT IS A DISACCHARIDE?
Two monosaccharides combined together
WHAT IS A POLYSACCHARIDE?
Many monosaccharides combined together ('a carbohydrate form of a polymer)
WHEN AND WHAT HAPPENS IN A CONDENSATION REACTION?
A condensation reaction happens when 2 monosaccharides join together and molecule of water (H20) is removed
WHEN AND WHAT HAPPENS IN HYDROLYSIS
Hydrolysis happens when a disaccharide is broken back into its monosaccharide units, and it is where a molecule of water (H2O) is put into the bonds to break them
WHAT IS THE BOND BETWEEN TWO JOINED MONOSACCHARIDE
A glycosidic bond
WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF MONOSACCHARIDES?
They are sweet-tasting, soluble, an crystallizable
WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES OF POLYSACCHARIDES?
The are not sweet tasting, insoluble, and not crystallizable
WHAT ARE THE 3 MONOSACCHARIDES?
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
WHAT ARE THE 3 DISACCHARIDES?
Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
WHAT ARE THE 3 POLYSACCHARIDES?
Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
WHAT IS THE GENERAL FORMULA FOR GLUCOSE?
WHAT DO WE USE TO TEST FOR REDUCING SUGAR?
Benedict's Reagent (Solution) -Copper Sulphate
WHAT ARE THE RESULTS OF THE REDUCING SUGAR TEST?
Green- Very Low
HOW DO WE TEST FOR NON-REDUCING SUGARS?
Do the same test as for reducing sugars, just to make sure that it is non-reducing.
Then with a different sample, add an equal amount of hydrochloric acid to the sample and heat for 5 minutes, which is to hydrolyse the disaccharide into its original monosaccharide units.
Then add sodium hydrocarbonate to the solution, to neutralize the acid
Then re-test it with Benedict's Reagent and heat it again- the solution should go orange-brown
WHY DO WE ADD SODIUM HYDROCARBONATE IN THE NON-RED
To neutralize the acid because Benedict's reagent does not work in acidic conditions
WHAT IS THE TEST FOR STARCH?
Add 'iodine in potassium iodide' to the sample and it should turn blue-black