Biology p1

Magnification

Light microscopes-

use visible light and magnify lenses to see object

+VE Observe multi ellular strutures

-VE x500 magnification and 200nm resolution

Electron

Use beam of electrons in a vacumn less than 1nm to see specemin

+VE x500,000 mag and 0.1nm resolution

-VE destroys sample

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Cells

Plasma membrane - prrotects surroundings regulates what comes in and out

R ER - flattened sacs enclosed by a amembrane. ribosomes on surface, proteins made here

S ER- single tubular scas. Lipids made here

Mitohondria- site of respiration. contains 70S ribosomes and DNA.

CYtoplasm - fluid that fills the cell. site of many metabolic processes.

Nucleuolus- makes ribosomes and region of dna and protein

Vesicles- small membrane sacs transports and stores substances

Centrioles - cell division

lysosomes- destrpys old organism and specimens

golgi apparatus- modifies proteins and packages them in vesiles for transport

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Prokaryotic

Prokaryotic is SINGLE (P) RINGLE

simple structures NO nucleus or membrane bound organelles. - bacteria

Plasmids - dpunle stranded DNA - oftencontain additional genes taht aid bacterium survival

Ribsomsomes-  makes proteins  - 70s

capsule - protects cells from drying out or being englufed by wbc

Nuceliod - dna carries all essential information

cell wall - long chained molecles made up of amino acids

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Eukaryotic

Mde up of multi cellular organism such as plants and animals with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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Plant cells

Chloroplast - for photosynthesis

vacuole - stores water and ther substances

tonoplast - controls movement in and out of the vacuole

cell wall - supports and protects

amyoplasts - stores starch

Gram staining

GRAM POSITIVE - this is purple

GRAM NEGATIVE - this is pink

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PALISADE

these are found in leaves that contain choloplasts.

They can absorb a lot of light because they are packed tightly

so no sun can escape and o it's fully absorvbes so there is more enrgy for photynthesis.

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ROOT HAIR CELL

Plant roots

found in epithilium near rot tips no thickening

Lrge surface area <-----> to absorb water and dissolve matierals from soil.

ells are thin to make it easy for absortion

Contain many mitochondria to help supply energy for active transport.

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SPERM

ACROSOMES-  contain enzymes to digest cuter layers of egg

mid region - with mitchondria to provide and store energy

Unduliopium - for movement t swim to egg

nucleus - contains one set of chromosomes for fertilisation

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EGG

Cytoplasm - full of energy rich materials

jelly layer 0 stop more than 1 sperm entering

vesicles specialised - stop more than 1 sperm fertilising egg

nucleus - contains chromosomes 4 fertilisation

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WHITE BLOOD CELLS

Multi lobes nucleus - squeeze through small gaps when traveing to infection.

holds lysosomes that cintain enzymes that are used to engul patogens

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RBC

Biconcave - enhances surface area

flexible squeeze through capillaries

transport oxygen around body

increased space for heamoglobin for carrying oxygen

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