biology infection and response


measles (virus)


fever,red skin rashes 

how does it spread?: 

inhalation of droplets from coughs and sneezes 

how can the risk be reduced?: 

isolation, cover mouth when coughing or sneezing 

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HIV (viruses)


affects immune system 

how does it spread?: 

direct sexual contact and exchange of body fluid 

how can the risk be reduced?: 

condoms, not sharing needles, screening blood before using it for transfusions 

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rose black spot


black or purple spots on leaves, leaves can turn yellow and fall off, effects the growth of plants 

how does it spread?: 

in the environment by water or wind 

how can the risk be reduced?: 

picking off the affected leaves 

what pathogen causes rose black spot?:


how is it treated?: 

by using fungicides, removing the dead or affected leaves 

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salmonella (bacteria)


fever, vomitting, diarrhea, stomach cramps 

how does it spread?:

in food that's eaten

how can the risk be reduced?: 

vacinate and keep cooked and raw foods seperate 

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gonorrhoea (bacteria)


thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis, pain when urinating and infertility 

how does it spread?:

sexual contact 

how can the risk be reduced?: 

condoms, avoid sexual contact until the infection has been treated 

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what is a pathogen?:

microorganism that causes disease 

4 examples of pathogens:





how do bacteria cause disease?: 

releasing toxins in the body 

how do viruses cause disease?:

invade cells and use them to multiply and produce other viruses

3 ways that pathogens can be spread?:

air,water,direct contact 

what is an antigen?:

the antibody blinds to the antigen

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what type of pathogen causes malaria?:


how does malaria spread?:

by female mosquitos (vectors) 

what are the symptoms of malaria?:

headaches,high temperature,diarrhoea, vomitting and can cause death 

how can the spread of malaria be reduced?:

preventing the vectors from breeding 

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how different parts of the body are protected to s

stomach - produces acid that kills pathogens 

skin - barrier to pathogen entry, antimicrobial secretion 

nose - contains hair and mucus to trap particles that may contain pathogens 

trachea/bronchi - secrete mucus that traps pathogens, cilia waft mucus to the back of the throat where it is swallowed 

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how can vaccination affect the spread of disease?:

it slows the infection rate down because more people are immune and have antibodies to disease 

how does a vaccination?:

a weakened pathogen gets injected white blood cells attack the pathogen which then creates antibodies to defend against the disease 

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what is an antibiotic?:

antibiotics are used to treat or prevent types of bacteria infection 

an example of an antibiotic: 


why can't antibiotics kill viruses?;

viruses live in cells and the antibiotics can damage the cells

what is an advantage of antibiotics?; 

can slow growth and kill many types of infection 

what is meant by antibiotic resistance?: 

when germs such as bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat drugs designed to kill them

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what is a painkiller?:

a tablet that relieves pain 

do painkillers kill pathogens?:

no they can only relieve pain 

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what is medicine made from?

foxgloves - digitalis 

willow - asprin (painkillers) 

mould - penicillin 

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drugs and how they are made

what is pre-clincial testing?:  - testing that doesn't happen on humans 

why do we test drugs?; - some drugs are toxic and may have harmful side effects 

what is a double-blind trial?:  - the doctor and the patient both don't know that the drug is being trialed 

what is a placebo?: - a dummy drug, doesn't have the actual drug in it 

how are modern drugs produced?: - in a labatory with synthetic verisons of plant extracts 

why is it important to produce drugs that treat viruses?: - viruses get attached to healthy cells to make new viruses 

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