Biology - Food and Digestion

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  • Created by: MaxR1
  • Created on: 21-02-16 13:33

Food and Digestion introduction

Blanced Diet - The correct amount of all the nutrients and having the necessary energy requirements

Carbohydrate - Found in Bread, potato and cereal (sugar and starch are also carbs) - Needed for energy

Protein - Found in meat, fish and eggs - Needed for Growth and Repair

Fat - Found in for Cream, butter, milk and oil - Needed for a store of energy

Vitamins - Found in Vegetables and cereal - Needed to keep things 'ticking over'  (Vit D means Healthy bones - Vit A means good eyesight)

Minerals - Found in Meat, milk and cereal - Needed for strong bones (Calcium keeps bones strong - Iron keeps blood good)

Fibre - Found in Fruit, Veg and cereal - Needed to keep you regular

Water - Found in Water and most foods - Needed for hydration

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Food Tests


  • Drop some iodine onto the food. If the iodine turns blue/black then starch is present

Simple Sugars (e.g. Glucose)

  • Boil the food in Benedict's solution. If an orange precipitate appears then the food contains simple sugars


  • Add 10 drops of Biuret solution to the food in a test tube. If protein is present$, it will produce a purple product

Vitamin C

  • Crush up food, add a few drops of water and stir
  • Take the solution and add it to a DCPIP Solution
  • Keep adding until the DCPIP is decolourised.
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Food Tests Continued


  • Shake or crush the food to make it dissolve.
  • Filter or dilute the food and ethanol mix so that you get a clear liquid (a solution of fat in ethanol).
  • Add this to a test tube of water. A white (milk-like) emulsion indicates the presence of fats or oils.
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Metabolic Rate

Metabolic Rate - The speed at which such chemical reactions take place in the body.

It varies because of several factors, including:

  • Age
  • Gender - male or female
  • The proportion of muscle to fat in the body
  • The amount of exercise and other physical activity
  • Genetic traits

The metabolic rate increases as we exercise and stays high for a while afterwards.

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Teeth - Diet 1

Herbivore - Animals that only eat plants

  • Butterflies
  • Rabbits
  • Hippos

Carnivore -Animals that only eat flesh (meateaters)

  • Tigers
  • Lions
  • Bears

Insectivore- Animals that only eat insects

  • Anteater
  • Spider
  • Lizard
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Teeth - Diet 2

Omnivore - Animals that eat flesh and plants

  • Pigs
  • Badgers
  • Mice
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Teeth - Definitions

Incisors -

Cutting teeth used for pieces of food

Canines -

These are long and sharp teeth used to tear and hold food

Premolars -

These are used to crush and grind soft food

Molars -

Used for chewing and grinding hard food

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Tooth Diagram


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Tooth Amounts

Teeth                     Milk                     Adult

Incisors                   8                           8

Canines                  4                           4

Premolars               4                           8

Molars                    4                          12

TOTAL                  20                          32

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Gut Diagram


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