• Created by: alicebeal
  • Created on: 21-04-15 16:24


Where food enters the alimentary canal and digestion begins.

Mechanical digestion by the teeth.

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Salivary Glands

Produce saliva containing amylase; which breaks down starch and makes food easier to swallow.

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Muscular tube which moves ingested food to the stomach using peristalsis.

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Muscular organ where digestion begins.

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Produces digestive enzymes. 

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Gall bladder

Stores bile.

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Produces bile.

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Small intestine - duodenum

Where food is mixed with digestive enzymes and bile.

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Small intestine - ileum

Where digested food is absorbed into the blood and lymph.

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Large intestine - colon

Where water is reabsorbed.

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Where faeces are stored.

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Where faeces leave the alimentary canal.

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Proteins that function as biological catalysts.

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Salivary amylase

Substrate- Starch

End-product- Maltose 

Where produced- Salivary glands

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Substrate- Protein

End-product- Amino acids

Where produced- Stomach, pancreas

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Substrate- Lipids (fats and oils)

End-product- Fatty acids and glycerol

Where produced- Pancreas

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Pancreatic amylase

Substrate- Starch

End-product- Maltose

Where produced- Pancreas

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Substrate- Maltose

End-product- Glucose

Where produced- Small intestine

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Hydrochloric acid

Produced in the stomach to create an acidic condition.

Kills harmful microorganisms. 

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Neutralises the acid

Emulsifies fats

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Small intestine - ileum

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Small intestine - enzymes

Enzymes in the small intestine work best in alkaline conditions. 

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Each enzyme can only work on a particular substrate.

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Body temperature

37 degrees

Linked to the optimum temperature for many enzymes

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Enzyme substrate complex

When the enzyme active site and substrate bind to create an enzyme substrate complex.

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Increases surface area on the small intestine.

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Low temperatures

Molecules move slower so the enzyme and substrte are less likely to collide.

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High temperatures

The enzyme active site changes shape - denaturing.

(also at high or low pH values)

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Rate of reaction

calculate the temperature coefficient, Q10 

Q10= rate at higher temperature

          rate at lower temperature

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