Biology B7.1

Detailed mind map on B7.1

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  • Created by: keeels
  • Created on: 14-06-13 17:45
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  • B7.1
    • Skeleton
      • supports the body and allows movement
      • Stores minerals such as calcuim and phosphorus
      • Makes red blood cells, phatelets and some white blood cells in bone marrow
      • Forms a system of leeves with muscles attached, which allows the body to move
      • Protects internal organs, for example the pelvis protects the reproductive organs
      • Peak perfomance in activities needing physical strength and flexibility rely on a system of soft tissues supported by a tough and flexible Skeleton
      • The skeleton is made up of   tissue such as bone and cartilage (live cells)
        • blood brings oxygen and nutrients to the cells
      • Bone is continually broken down and rebuilt , which allows for a child's bone to grow in size
        • Weight bearing exercises such as jogging simulate bone growth, increasing its density.
        • Inactivity makes bones less dense and weaker
    • Exercise
      • Background info required..
        • Lifestyle factors, such as smoking and drinking
        • Medication, you might need to have medication such as a inhaler close at hand.
          • family history, illness can be inherited (important to know this)
        • family history, illness can be inherited (important to know this)
        • Physical activity to ensure the course is challenging
        • Health problems such as high blood pressure
        • Fitness treatments , what has worked before
      • Baseline data
        • Data gathered at the start of a study or experiment so that the patterns and connections can be established
        • recovery period - the fitter you get the faster your recovery period after physical activities
        • Blood pressure - When you do strenuous exercise your heart beats more forcefully and your blood pressure increases. 120/8mmHg is a typical value for a healthy person
        • Proportion of body fat - Too much body fat puts a strain on your heart and your arteries may become dangerously narrowed
        • Body mass index (BMI) - this measures your body mass based on your height. BMI= body mass / {height(m)}2
        • Heart rate - As you exercise your heart reate increases. your heart beats faster to deliver more food and nutrients to your muscles.It is recommended that you train at 60% of your max heart rate
      • Injuries
        • Sprains
          • This usually happens when you overstretch a ligament by twisting your ankle or knee.
            • Symptoms include:Redness and swelling. Surface Bruising. Difficulty walking . Dull, throbbing ache or sharp, cramping pain.
        • Torn Ligaments
          • The joint is painfully bruised and very hard to bend. You might see a dent where the ligament is torn.
          • Sprains
            • This usually happens when you overstretch a ligament by twisting your ankle or knee.
              • Symptoms include:Redness and swelling. Surface Bruising. Difficulty walking . Dull, throbbing ache or sharp, cramping pain.
        • Torn Tendons
          • Tendons can stretch, become inflamed and even snap like a worn out elastic band
        • Dislocations
          • When a bone comes out of its socket.
        • Treatments  RICE - REST, ICE , COMPRESSION , ELEVATION.
          • Torn Ligaments
            • The joint is painfully bruised and very hard to bend. You might see a dent where the ligament is torn.
          • Physiotherapy and not doing vigorous exercise for 2- 3months
          • Dislocations
            • When a bone comes out of its socket.
          • Torn Tendons
            • Tendons can stretch, become inflamed and even snap like a worn out elastic band
    • Joints and Movement
      • Ball and socket joints - at your hip and shoulder they are the most versatile and can move in every direction.
      • HInge joints - such as  the knee and elbow can only move  backwards and fowards
      • Ligaments - bands of tough. elastic tissue holding each bones to each other
      • Tendon- Tough band of inelastic tissue attaching muscle to bone
      • Cartilage a smooth protective surface covers the bone ends, providing easy movement
      • Synovial fluid - This lubricates and nourishes the tissues in the joint capsule
      • Synovial membrane - this tissue lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
      • Inelastic tendons transmit the forces from muscles to the bones. Muscles can only pull a bone for movement at a joint. after contracting, the muscle is stretched again only when the bone is pulled back by another muscle.
        • So at least two muscles must act at every joint - one muscle contracts to bend the joint , the other to straighten it.
      • Muscles that work opposite each other are called an antagonistic pair - Shoulder biceps and triceps.

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