EXCLUSIVE: excludes anything that isnt proper religion. proper religions only!

INCLUSIVE: anything that may have the same functions as a religion, a football club.

BELIEFS: ideas help people understand the world

IDEOLOGIES: set of beliefs

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DURKEIM. (toteism) (sacred&profane)



BELLAH (civil religion- not religious thinga=s but perform same functions as religion)

functions of religion:

  • social solidarity
  • value consensus
  • emotional support in times of crisis
  • social control
  • harmony and order

criticims: ignores bad things.

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marxism 1


  • social solidairty
  • value consensus, rc ideology
  • meaning to meaningless things, why rich are rich and poor are poor
  • social control, controls wc
  • maintains socila order, capitalism

religion expolits wc and makes their oppression seem fair. ruling class ideology and wc=false consensue (do not see theyre being expoloited)

dulls pain of wc:

  • promises heaven
  • suffering is good (jesus cuffered)
  • god will solve problems
  • out of their control, wc for a reason
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marxism 2

social conrtol:

conservative force- stops change from happening- durkheim=negative! supports capatilsm and maintains class. peoples class is god given.


religion used to help revoutions and improves wc.

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feminsim 1

  • religion=ideological, social control, bad for society, PATRIARCHAL!


  • social solidairty- stops women wanting chnage
  • value consensus- patriarchal ideology
  • meaning to meaninlgess things- men more pwerful than women
  • social control- controls womens behaviour eg; contreception
  • social order


  • male dominated view of world
  • all religons are male centred
  • women not allowed to be leaders

social control:

  • controls womens bodies and behaviour
  • not allowed same oppurtunities as men
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meta narraitve- one big story.

truth CAN be discovered becvause scientific methods are unbiased. unalike religion which is biased!!

  • observation/form a hypothesis/test hypoth=fact!
  • POPPER... falsificaiton(science should aim to refute hypoth) sicnece can not discover truth, only true until something new coomes along-swan story
  • RATIONALIST: disocver true nature of world
  • RELATIVIST: science should not be given any special status, not superior knowledge, just another religion.
  • ATHEISM: unsure cos no proof
  • AGNOSTICISM: dunno if god exists
  • HUMANIST: human values guide behaviuour not religion
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aciton theory.

we create society.


  • provides meaning to social life
  • legitimates norms values and beliefs
  • encorage social action to create change

how we contribute to construction of meaningfulk world by actoes.


religion can only be un derstood by seeing the role it plays in society not the role it plays for the indivudal. macro not micro

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  • aocietes are constantly changing
  • class/gender/eth is no longer relavant
  • no absolute truths
  • pic n mix:people choose what they wanna believe
  • growth of consumerism- choosinfg belkiefs to suit their needs
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social change theory

  • FUNCTIONALISM- Maintains social order and DOES NOT cause change
  • MARXISM- Maintains social order and DOES NOT cause change
  • FEMINISM- Mainatains social order and DOES NOT cause change
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  • inclusive
  • ruling calss
  • large scale
  • based on hieraches
  • accept wider societies values
  • born into a church
  • ritual
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  • exclusive
  • small
  • loyalty
  • leader
  • reject wider society
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  • smaller than a church
  • tolerant of other groups
  • not as ritual
  • sometimes accept others values but not always, depends what it is
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