beliefs

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defenitions

EXCLUSIVE: excludes anything that isnt proper religion. proper religions only!

INCLUSIVE: anything that may have the same functions as a religion, a football club.

BELIEFS: ideas help people understand the world

IDEOLOGIES: set of beliefs

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functionalism

DURKEIM. (toteism) (sacred&profane)

MALINOWSKI

PARSONS

BELLAH (civil religion- not religious thinga=s but perform same functions as religion)

functions of religion:

  • social solidarity
  • value consensus
  • emotional support in times of crisis
  • social control
  • harmony and order

criticims: ignores bad things.

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marxism 1

functions:

  • social solidairty
  • value consensus, rc ideology
  • meaning to meaningless things, why rich are rich and poor are poor
  • social control, controls wc
  • maintains socila order, capitalism

religion expolits wc and makes their oppression seem fair. ruling class ideology and wc=false consensue (do not see theyre being expoloited)

dulls pain of wc:

  • promises heaven
  • suffering is good (jesus cuffered)
  • god will solve problems
  • out of their control, wc for a reason
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marxism 2

social conrtol:

conservative force- stops change from happening- durkheim=negative! supports capatilsm and maintains class. peoples class is god given.

NEO MARX:

religion used to help revoutions and improves wc.

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feminsim 1

  • religion=ideological, social control, bad for society, PATRIARCHAL!

functions:

  • social solidairty- stops women wanting chnage
  • value consensus- patriarchal ideology
  • meaning to meaninlgess things- men more pwerful than women
  • social control- controls womens behaviour eg; contreception
  • social order

ideology:

  • male dominated view of world
  • all religons are male centred
  • women not allowed to be leaders

social control:

  • controls womens bodies and behaviour
  • not allowed same oppurtunities as men
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science

meta narraitve- one big story.

truth CAN be discovered becvause scientific methods are unbiased. unalike religion which is biased!!

  • observation/form a hypothesis/test hypoth=fact!
  • POPPER... falsificaiton(science should aim to refute hypoth) sicnece can not discover truth, only true until something new coomes along-swan story
  • RATIONALIST: disocver true nature of world
  • RELATIVIST: science should not be given any special status, not superior knowledge, just another religion.
  • ATHEISM: unsure cos no proof
  • AGNOSTICISM: dunno if god exists
  • HUMANIST: human values guide behaviuour not religion
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PHENOMENOLOGY

individual.

aciton theory.

we create society.

micro.

  • provides meaning to social life
  • legitimates norms values and beliefs
  • encorage social action to create change

how we contribute to construction of meaningfulk world by actoes.

critcism:

religion can only be un derstood by seeing the role it plays in society not the role it plays for the indivudal. macro not micro

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postmodernism

  • aocietes are constantly changing
  • class/gender/eth is no longer relavant
  • no absolute truths
  • pic n mix:people choose what they wanna believe
  • growth of consumerism- choosinfg belkiefs to suit their needs
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social change theory

  • FUNCTIONALISM- Maintains social order and DOES NOT cause change
  • MARXISM- Maintains social order and DOES NOT cause change
  • FEMINISM- Mainatains social order and DOES NOT cause change
  • NEO MARX&WEBER- CAN CAUSE change
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churches

  • inclusive
  • ruling calss
  • large scale
  • based on hieraches
  • accept wider societies values
  • born into a church
  • ritual
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sects

  • exclusive
  • small
  • loyalty
  • leader
  • reject wider society
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denominations

  • smaller than a church
  • tolerant of other groups
  • not as ritual
  • sometimes accept others values but not always, depends what it is
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cults

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