- Animals can learn from previous experiences and therefore adapt and respond to changing conditions.
- e.g. avoiding predators and harmful foods.
- finding suitable foods.
- finding a suitable mate.
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- After repeated responses to a non-beneficial or non-harmful stimuli an animal will learn not to respond to it.
- They can therefore spend their time and energy more efficiently.
- e.g. young can focus on learning rather than being frightened by loud noises.
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- An inherited, immediate response (reflex action) to a stimulus.
- The response is automatic and reinforced by repetition.
- e.g. sneezing
- phototaxis in earthworms
- sea anemones waving their tentacles in response to a prey's chemicals.
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- A process in which learning causes a reflex action to happen in response to a different stimulus.
- e.g. Pavlov's dogs learn to salivate after the ringing of a bell.
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- A process in which an animal changes its behaviour as a result of experiencing rewards or unpleasant consequences.
- 'trial and error'
- e.g. Skinner's Box
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- A device that offers small invertebrates two or more contrasting environments.
- The different conditions provide a stimulus to which the invertebrates respond.
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- Studied innate behaviour in Herring Gulls.
- Chicks know how to peck a red spot on their mother's beak to get food.
- Tinbergen gave new born chicks a piece of cardboard with coloured spots.
- He found that they instinctively pecked the red one the most.
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- Studied imprinting in Geese.
- Group 1 hatched by mother and imprinted on her.
- Group 2 hatched with incubator and imprinted on Lorenz.
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- Ardipithecus ramidus.
- 4.4 million years ago.
- Mixture of human and ape features.
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- Australopithecus afarensis.
- 3.2 million years ago.
- More humanlike than Ardi.
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- **** erectus.
- 1.6 million years ago
- More humanlike that Lucy.
- Discovered by Leakey in 1984.
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- Mitochondria contains small piece of DNA inherited from the mother.
- Has a high mutation rate.
- The more different two samples are, the further back that they share a common ancestor.
- Everyone can be traced back to Mitochondrial Eve.
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Dian Fossey and Jane Goodall
Studied social behaviour in apes.
- Fossey discovered that gorillas had complex family relationships.
- Goodall recorded chimpanzee behaviour and found that they make and use tools to help them obtain food.
Their studies proved that apes:
- Work together to find food.
- Protect each other.
- Have social ranks to prevent fights.
- Groom each other to form special bonds.
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