Biology

  • Created by: helig
  • Created on: 13-05-19 19:14
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  • Biology
    • DNA
      • Genetic Profiling
        • Criminals can be positively idenified if DNA samples from the crime scene match theirs.
        • If there is a dispute as to who is the father of a child, the fathers DNA will have similarities with the child.
        • Genetic Profiling can detect certain genes that may be associated with a particular disease.
    • Microorganisms and diseases
      • The immune system
        • The skin is an impenetrable barrier against organisms. Most of the body is covered in skin, apart from body openings.
        • If the skin is broken then the blood at the site of the wound clots, sealing the gap.
        • If they get inside the body, pathogens are killed by white blood cells. There are two types:
          • Phagocytes, which ingest microorganisms and digest them.
          • Lymphocytes, which produce chemicals called antibodies which destroy microorganisms and others called antitoxins which neutralise any poisons produced by the pathogen.
    • Variation and evolution
      • Evolution
        • Natural selection
          • All populations vary, due to past mutations.
          • Most organisms over-produce, i.e. they produce more offspring than can possibly survive. This is so they have a higher chance of increasing their population.
    • The variety of life
      • Adaptation to the environment
        • Features develop that help the organisms to survive, so if similar organisms live in different environments they will adapt in different ways.
          • Morphological adaptations are structural adaptations of the organism for example, colour of fur, and leg length
        • Behavioural adaptations could include the time of day when an animal is active or the type of food it eats. Plants have a very limited behaviour so this mostly applies to animals

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