Energy is passed up the food chain when organisms are consumed.
Energy is lost from the food chain by heat, respiration and excretion.
% of energy transferred = input energy/output energy x 100
Pyramids of numbers show the number of organisms in a food chain.
Pyramids of biomass shwo the biomass of organisms in a food chain.
- inorganic material
Water content formula....
% of water content = water mass/ wet mass x 100
% of biomass = biomass/ wet mass x 100
Energy in Plants
Photosynthesis formula... carbon dioixe + water = glucose + oxygen
- used to release energy
- converted into starch for storage
- converted into chemicals for cell growth
Plants absorb nitrates from the soil by active transport which requires energy.
- the amount of carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis exactly matches the amount produced in respiration
- the amount of oxygen produced in photosynthesis exactly matches the amount used up in respiration
Symbiosis and Sickle-cell Anaemia
Mutualism = both organisms benefit
Commensalism = benefits one organism and has no effect on other organism
Parasitism = benefits one organism and harms the other.
Hereditary blood disorder, passed on by recessive allele
Beneficial in areas where malaris is common as sickle cells aren't infected by malaria
Genetic Modification and Testing
Genetic modification process...
- gene is isolated
- gene is inserted into target bacterium using a vector
- gene is replicated
- gene transferred to target organism
Genetic testing process...
- DNA isolated
- gene probe created
- UV or autoradiography used to locate the gene
Aerobic respiration with oxygen..
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen...
glucose = lactic acid + energy
Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid.
More oxygen is needed by the body after exercise has stopped in order to break down the lactic acid - oxygen debt
Double Circulatory System
Blood passes through heart twice on every circuit.
Heart has two artia and two ventricles
Three types of blood vessels....
ABO system = identifies blood types and enables donors to be matched to recipients
Vertebrates have skeletons...
Joints move via antagonistic pair. Can suffer from....
- torn ligaments/ tendons