B7

B7 module

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Energy tranfer

Energy is passed up the food chain when organisms are consumed.

Energy is lost from the food chain by heat, respiration and excretion.

% of energy transferred = input energy/output energy x 100

Pyramids of numbers show the number of organisms in a food chain.

Pyramids of biomass shwo the biomass of organisms in a food chain.


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Soil

Soil contains

- biomass

- inorganic material

- air

- water

Water content formula....

% of water content = water mass/ wet mass x 100

Biomass formula....

% of biomass = biomass/ wet mass x 100

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Energy in Plants

Photosynthesis formula... carbon dioixe + water = glucose + oxygen

Glucose is....

- used to release energy

- converted into starch for storage

- converted into chemicals for cell growth

Plants absorb nitrates from the soil by active transport which requires energy.

Compensation point...

- the amount of carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis exactly matches the amount produced in respiration

- the amount of oxygen produced in photosynthesis exactly matches the amount used up in respiration

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Symbiosis and Sickle-cell Anaemia

Mutualism = both organisms benefit

Commensalism = benefits one organism and has no effect on other organism

Parasitism = benefits one organism and harms the other.

Sickle-cell anaemia

Hereditary blood disorder, passed on by recessive allele

Beneficial in areas where malaris is common as sickle cells aren't infected by malaria

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Genetic Modification and Testing

Genetic modification process...

- gene is isolated

- gene is inserted into target bacterium using a vector

- gene is replicated

- gene transferred to target organism

Genetic testing process...

- DNA isolated

- gene probe created

- UV or autoradiography used to locate the gene

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Respiration

Aerobic respiration with oxygen..

glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

Anaerobic respiration without oxygen...

glucose = lactic acid + energy

Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid.

More oxygen is needed by the body after exercise has stopped in order to break down the lactic acid - oxygen debt

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Double Circulatory System

Blood passes through heart twice on every circuit.

Heart has two artia and two ventricles

Three types of blood vessels....

- arteries

- veins

- capillaries

ABO system = identifies blood types and enables donors to be matched to recipients

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The Body

Vertebrates have skeletons...

- bones

- muscles

- ligaments

- tendons

Joints move via antagonistic pair. Can suffer from....

- spains

- dislocation

- torn ligaments/ tendons

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