All you need to know about B5

HideShow resource information

Heart Structure

  • Artery - 2-25mm, Thick Muscular Wall, No Valves, High Pressure 
  • Vein - 2-30mm, Thin Less Muscular Walls, Valves, Low Pressure
  • Capillary - <0.1mm, Thin Permeable Walls, No Valves, Medium Pressure
  • (http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS7nHbiOySQAl1lNG_CRTsrVN8s0iqXE5oYgl8UYcgHFEdz3uCjDw)
1 of 5


  • White Blood Cells - Fight disease, Two Types - phogocytes - Non-specific engulf and digest any pathogen    Lymphocytes- Specific only attack one type of pathogen.Produce antibodies
  • Red Blood Cells - Carry Oxygen and CO2. No nucleus, lots of haemoglobin for carrying these gases
  • Platelets - Combine with clotting agents when we cut ourselves to clot the blood and create scabs
  • Haemophilia - A generic disease (recesive allelle ) Lack of clotting factor means cuts don't clot, increasing blood loss.
  • Blood Types
  • A - A antigens - B antibodies
  • B - B antigens - A antibodies
  • AB - AB antigens - Neither
  • O - No antigens - A/B Antibodies
  • A/B blood type is a universal recipitent
  • O blood type is a universal donor
2 of 5

Blood Disorders

Blood Clotting - Some People through lifestyle, diet etc. can be prone to blood clots.This can lead to heart attacks. To treat this patients can be giving blood thinning medication like aspirin and wasfarin

Hole In The Heart - Before birth the foetal heart has a hole between the 2 atria. This creates a single circulatory system, cutting out the lungs (placenta carries out the function of the lungs)

When we are born the hole closes allowing blood flow to the lungs (double circulatory system) sometimes the hole doesn't close fully. This can be restricted by surgery

Bypass Surgery - The artery supplying the heart muscle is called the cornoary artery. This artery and others supplying the heart muscle can become blcoked/restrictions by plaque. To overcome the problems associated with this, blood vessels are taken from the leg and attached either side of the blockage.

Valve Replacement - Faulty valves are replaced by either Human valves, Generically engineerd pig valves or Artificial valves

3 of 5

Respiratory System

Trachea - The surface cells (epithelil) have hair projections called cilia. The cells produce mucus to trap dust and microbes and the cilia waft the mucus up towards the mouth for us to cough out.

Bronchi - The first branch from the trachea one to each lung

Bronchioles - The branches coming from each bronchus. These continue to branch

Alveoli - The tiny air sacs at the end of the broncholes. This is where gas exchange takes place. This happens by diffusion. For this to be we need

  • Moist Surface
  • Thin Walls - Alveoli and Capillaries only 1 cell thick each
  • Large Surface Area
  • Good capillary network (blood) transport system
4 of 5

Lung Capacity

Residual Air - The air that remain in the lung at all times (stops lungs collapsing)

Tidal Volume - Volume of air breathed in/out when we are at rest

Vital Capacity - The max volume of air you can breathe in and out

Spirometer - Measures your lung capacity and the amount of CO2 you enable


5 of 5


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »