B3 - Protein Synthesis

Revision cards detailing the process of protein synthesis.

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Basic Facts

DNA controls the production of proteins in a cell.

Protein synthesis is what we call the production of proteins.

A section of DNA that codes for a particular protein is called a gene.


DNA controls protein synthesis, and the genes tell it what protein to make.

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Amino Acids

Proteins are made up of amino acids.

Amino acids are chains of molecules.

Each protein has its own number and order of amino acids, which gives the proteins a different shape, and a different function.

It is the order of bases that controls the order of amino acids in a protein, as each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of 3 bases in the gene.

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Amino acids are joined together to make proteins.

These follow the order of the bases in the gene.

Each gene has a different sequence of bases, which is what makes it code for a unique protein.

See the next card for an example.

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For Example...

If the sequence of bases was...


...then the cell would read the genetic code like this...

Bases on DNA      Amino acid   

  T C G                           ()

  T G G                          <>

...then the order of the amino acids in the protein would be...

() <> because the bases go T C G    T G G.

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