B3: Living and Growing (OCR Gateway Biology)

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Chromosomes and DNA Structure

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Protiens

Types of protiens:

  • structural                   (eg. collagen- substance that holds our body together)
  • hormonial                  (eg. insulin- breaks down sugars)
  • carrier molecule        (eg. hemoglobin- in red blood cells and cary oxygen from lungs to body                                            cells)
  • enzyme                     (eg. amylase- a catalyst) 

Protien molecules

  • are built up from a chain of amino acids 
    • has it's own number and sequence
  • has its own particular shape to do it's job
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Protien Synthesis

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Enzymes- Lock and Key theory

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Enzymes- Q₁₀ and Denaturing

  • Denaturing is irreversable, the enzyme is perminantly damaged
  • enzymes work slowly at a low temperature because the substrates enter the active site more slowly.
  • Q₁₀: Temperature coefficient
    • a measure of the rate of change of a reaction when the temperature is increased by 10℃
  • Q₁₀ = rate at high temperature     (there is 10℃ difference between the high and low                                                                           <--  temperature)
  •           rate at low temperature

eg. what is the Q₁₀ of a reaction when at 20℃ the reaction was at 10units/min and was 24 units/min at 30℃

Q₁₀= 24÷10 

=2.4

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Blood

Blood is used to transport materials around the body

plasma contains:

  • red blood cells- carry oxygen in hemoglobin around the body
  • white blood cells- fight diseases
  • platelets- form scabs (help to clot up blood)
  • amino acids
  • fatty acids
  • urea
  • sugar
  • Red blood cells can be small and lets blood pass through the capillaries
  • they are a flattened disk shapes and have a large surface area for rapid diffusion of oxygen
  • they contain haemoglobin to absorb the oxygen in the lungs to release in the body
  • they have no nucleus to save space for haemoglobin
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Circulation: Veins, Arteries and Capilleries

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The Heart

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Respiration

aerobic respiration: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water  (+energy in the form of ATP)                                        C₆H₁₂O⁶ + 6O₂     →  6CO₂               + 6H₂O   (+ energy in the form of ATP)

  • the rate of respiration can be found by measuring:
  • the increased oxygen consumption
  • the increased carbon dioxide production
  • Respiratory Quotent (RQ)
  • = CO₂ produced
  •       O₂ used
  • anaerobic respiration: glucose → lactic acid (+ little energy, small amount of ATP)
    • lactic acid is carried to liver where oxygen is used to break it down 
  • ATP: substance that is used as the energy source for many processes in cells
  • Oxygen debt: amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to CO₂ and H₂O
  • metabolic rate: the rate at which energy is used in the body
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Mutations

  • mutations are the changesto the genetic code in a gene
  • DNA mutation changes the amino acid sequence this changes the different protein produced, the cells may not function properly

Types of mutations

  • spontaneous: mistake made during copying or creation of cells or gametes
  • induced: chance of mutation increased by radiation, x rays, UV lights, chemicals
  • occasionally it (mutations) can give an organism an advantage, sickle cell anemia gives you resistance to malaria
  • most mutations are harmful, they can cause cells to multiply out of control (cancer) or in a gamete can cause a feotus to die
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Mitosis

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Meiosis

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Selective Breeding

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Genetic Engineering

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Gene Therapy

  • doesn't permanently change an organisms genes
  • copies of a functioning gene/ allele may be inserted into certain body cells who have a recessive genetic disorder
  • (it takes place after the organism is fully grown)
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Cloning in Plants

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Cloning in Animals

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