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Anaerobic Respiration

THE PROCESS WHERE THE BODY NEEDS ENERGY FAST, SO IT BURNS UP SUGARS QUICKER WITHOUT OXYGEN.

Your body starts to respire anaerobicially when you are doing lots of strenious exercise(such as sprinting) and when your make your muscles work harder than usual.

GLYCOGEN -Storage molecule for glucose as the body doesnt waste any glucose.

Glucose=Lactic Acid+Energy

Oxygen Debt= To break down the build up of lactic acid, you need heavy intake of oxygen. This includes panting hard and breathing deeply after strenious exercise.

Build up of lactic acid causes muscle fatigue and shortage of breath.

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Enzymes and Digestion

  • Salivary Glands(Mouth) - Produces AMYLAZE which breaks down starch into carboydrates. It requires to be neutral conditions to slightly acidic. Found in the saliva. 
  • Oesophagus(Throat) - Involves muscles that squeeze your food down.
  • Stomach - Musclular walls that plummet foods, produces protease enzyme to break down proteins and amino acids, produces hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and give the right pH for the enzymes to work.
  • Liver - Neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats using bile that is produced.
  • Pancreas - Produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes into the small intestines.
  • Gall Bladder - Stores bile before being released into small instestine.
  • Small Intestine - Produces protease, lipase and amylase to complete digestion, where the food is absorbed into the blood stream to the body. 
  • Large Intestine - Where excess water is absorbed from the food to be released as urine.

Lipase - converts FATS in Glycerol and Fatty Acid

Amylase - converts STARCH into Simple Sugars

Protease - converts PROTEIN into AMINO ACIDS

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Making Use of Enzymes

  • WASHING POWDERS - Bio Detergents contain protease and lipase enzymes which break down proteins and fats in stains. They also have lower optimum temperatures, so less electricity is used, meaning saving money rather than Non Bio detergents.
  • BABY FOOD - We use protease enzymes to pre-digest the protein in the food because the babies digestive system isnt fully developed yet, so it can cope easier. It is also easier for the baby to get amino acids.
  • SLIMMING PRODUCTS - Isomerase enzymes are used to convert glucose into fructose syrup. They contain the exact same energy levels however fructose tastes a lot sweeter, so less of it is needed to make food taste sweet. This is why fructose is used as the food contains a lot less calories.

ADVANTAGES OF ENZYMES IN INDUSTRY:

  • Theyre specific, so they only catalyse the reaction you want
  • Using lower temps. and pressures mean lower costs and saving energy
  • Enzymes work for a long time, so they cost nothing to run
  • They are biodegradable.
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Homeostatis

THE MAINTENENCE OF A CONSTANT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

  • BODY TEMP - When your TOO HOT, hairs lie flat on your body, Sweat is produced by sweat glands and evaporates through the skin, which removes heat, the blood vessels supplying the skin dilate so more blood flows to the surface of the skin, making it easier to transfer heat to the environment from the blood. When your TOO COLD, hairs stand up to trap an insulating layer of air, no sweat is produced, blood vessels supplying skin capillaries constrict to close off skins blood supply, you shiver which makes our muscles contract at a very fast pace, making more respiration happen and creates heat energy. 
  • WATER CONTENT - Musnt get too high or too low 
  • ION CONTENT
  • BLOOD SUGAR - control insulin
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Mitosis

Cell replication happens because cells are able to copy their DNA and then divide. MITOSIS allows for an organism to grow tissue to be able to replace worn out and damaged cells with exact copies capable of the same function. 

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