Audience Theory Models

Uses and gratification models, encoding and decoding and hypodermic syringe model 

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Uses and Gratifications Model

This is concerned with what people do with the media. (Active) There are four major types

  • Reinforce personal identity by comparing our own roles with similar roles in the media
  • Need for companion ship and interaction
  • The need to be informed
  • The need for entertainment and diversion

This was developed by Blumer, McQuail and Brown

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Example ... GTA 4 Rockstar Games 2008

Reinforce Personal Identity 

  • Escapism, violence/action - other interests may include action movies
  • Aspirational -> tough gangster (Psychographic profile)
  • Fighting Evil -> Nico does not want to be a gangster in the game
  • Nico's experience mirror the gamers, e.g. he is new to Liberty City

The need for companionship and interaction 

  • Fan sites e.g. - game discussions 
  • A 'must play' game est 6 million copies sold
  • 'Watercooler' moment

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Continued ...

Need to be informed

  • Vice, ganger -> representation through mediation
  • NYC, large, crime, corruption
  • Use of Satire, makes fun of capitalism, violence is fun. Crime pays! US corrupt

Need for entertainment and diversion

  • An entertainment medium, cinema
  • exciting, power/control themes associated with gangster genre e.g. aggressive language, NY setting, guns, crime 
  • Narrative - 'Rise to Power' 
  • Iconography
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