Approaches Studies

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  • Created on: 27-04-15 12:39

Behaviourist Approach - Classical Conditioning

PAVLOV & THE DOGS

  • classically conditioned a hungry dog to salivate at the sight and smell of food
  • rang a bell whenever food was present
  • over time, the dog salivated at the sound of the bell alone

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Behaviourist Approach - Classical Conditioning

WATSON & RAYNER & LITTLE ALBERT

  • rang a bell that scared Little Albert
  • the bell was the unconditioned stimuli
  • the scare was the unconditioned response
  • presented a white rat, which was the conditioned stimuli, whenever the bell was rung
  • Albert became scared of the rat alone, without the sound of the bell
  • this scare was the conditioned response

SHOWS THAT CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CAUSES STRONG EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR.

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Behaviourist Approach - Operant Conditioning

SKINNER AND HIS BOX

  • a hungry rat was operantly conditioned to press a lever to get food
  • if the rat presses the lever, it is rewarded
  • if it does not press the lever, it is not rewarded
  • this is an example of continuous reinforcement as the rat is rewarded every single time is presses the lever

https://getrevising.co.uk/https_proxy/9081 (http://e27.co/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Skinner_Box.jpg)

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SLT Approach

BANDURA & THE BOBO DOLLS

  • children were placed in two groups
  • group 1 observed an adult acting aggressively towards a bobo doll, using a toy hammer
  • group 2 observed an adult acting in a non-aggressive way towards a bobo doll
  • children were then placed in a room seperately with a bobo doll and a toy hammer
  • the children who had observed aggressive behaviour acted aggressively
  • the children who had observed non-aggressive behaviour acted non-aggressively

SHOWS THAT EXPOSURE TO A MODEL BEHAVING AGRESSIVELY LEADS TO OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR.

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Cognitive Approach

EBBINGHAUS & THE NONSENSE WORDS

  • tested loss of info from memory
  • memorised long lists of nonsense words like 'bok' and 'ged'
  • tested himself for retention of these words numerous times after this
  • he found that forgetting was greatest soon after learning
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Cognitive Approach

WASON & THE CARDS

  • gave participants cards
  • told them that a card with A on one side would have 3 on the other side
  • told them that a card with B on one side woul d have 2 on the other side
  • asked them to prove this true or false
  • participants turned over the A card to show 3, proving the theory true
  • however, many did not turn over the B card to prove the theory true or false

SHOWS THAT LOGICAL THINKING IS DIFFICULT FOR SOME.

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