- An acid an alkali react togther and neralise and form a salt and water.
- If we mixed a strong acid and alkali, the solution would only be neutral if we added the exact right quanties.
- If there was more acid than alkali, then the alkali would be neutralised, but the solution after will be acidic, as there will be excess acid.
- It would be the opposite if there was more alkali.
- We can measure the exact volumes of acid and alkali needed to react together by the technique called titration.
- The point at which the acid and alkali have reacted completely is called the end point.
- We show this by using an indicator.
Analysis in Forensic Science
They analysis: drugs, pains, remnants of explosives, fire debris, fibres, gunshot residues, soil samples, toxic chemicals and biological toxins.
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyse DNA.
Analysis in Pollution Control
They need to monitor cases of environmetal pollution. For example, if a river gets polluted, they will test the water to trace the origins of any pollutants.
Analysis in Medicine
Another use of genetic fingerprinting is the treatment of leukaemia. Bone marrow is transplanted to the patient. After the operation samples of the blood are analysed. The donor's DNA is analysed. They look for matches in the bands of the two people samples.
The Haber Process
Why do we need it?
It is used to make Ammonia, which is then used to make fertilisers, as plants are not able to take Nitrogen directly from the air. In the haber proccess Nitrogen is taken from the air and turned into Ammonia. Hydrogen comes from the natural gas- methane. Then the two gases are passed over a hot iron catayst, at the temperature of 450*, and a pressure of 200 atmosphere. We remove the Ammonia, which then reduces the reverse reaction, which stops it from reforming hydrogen and nitrogen.