Analysing population change in the UK

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The components of population change

  • Population of a country has a number of inputs and outputs that creat either growth or decline in the population 
  • The factors that influence population change can be broadly divided into social, cultural, political, economic and demographic, for example the rate of immagration into the UK can be dependant on the number of jobs available 
  • The population in the UK is ageing or what is otherwise called a "greying population" where the death rate is higher than the birth rate meaning there is more older people than younger people resulting in a weaker workforce
  • It also creates something called a "greying pound". This is where the majority of the money going into the UK's economy is from older people because their children have left their homes so they spend less money on them and more on themsleves. The majority of this money is from pensions because they do not work. 
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Population Inputs - Births

Social/cultural factors

  • Levels of education
  • Acceptability of methods of family planning
  • Typical age of women when first child is concieved

Political factors

  • Availabilty of family planning clinics
  • Finacial policies which provide in centives for families such as child allowence

Economic factors

  • Family wealth
  • The cost of raising a child

Demographic factor

  • Number of women in the fertile age group
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Population Inputs - Immigration

Economic factors

  • Availability of work and in the recieving region

Enviromental factors

  • Safer enviroment in which to live in and raise a family

Political factors 

  • Government policies aimed at encouraging/disencouraging immagration

Social/cultural factors

  • Family members/friends who have already migrated 
  • Language (different or similar)
  • Shared history/colonialism 
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Population output - Deaths

Enviromental factors

  • Atmospheric pollution or contamination of drinking water
  • Frequency of natural disasters

Political factors

  • Public spending on National Health Service

Social/cultural factors

  • Lifestyle choices such as diet, addictions and excercise

Economic factors

  • Personal or family wealth

Demographic factors

  • Number of vulnerable age groups such as over 70's
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An ageing population

  • In 1971, there were almost twice as many under 16s (14.3 million) as there were people aged 65 or over (7.4 million)
  • By 2005, the numbers of people in these two age groups were much closer at 11.6 million for the under 16s and 9.6 million for the 65s and over
  • By 2014 it was estimated that the number of 65s would exceed those age under 16 for the first time
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Patterns in the birth rate

  • The UK experienced 4 baby booms during the twentieth century. One in 1921, after WW1 with a record number 1 million births, after many soldiers died they needed to equal the amount born to the amount lost
  • The second peaked in 1947 after WW2 with the same reason for the pervious one
  • The third and longest was during the 1960's occuring during the time of relative prosperity
  • The final was in the late 80's early 90's, when the women who grow up from the previous boom were at the age to have children
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