alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, carboxylic acid and esters

the title :p

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Alkanes

  • Saturated
  • Made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.

No. of carbons

1=methane =CH4(say meeth not crystal meth lol)

2=ethane= C2H6

3=propane=C3H8

4=butane=C4H10

try and draw them out :)

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Alkenes

  • Unsaturated
  • Still only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms
  • Contain one carbon=carbon double bond.


Methene= CH2

Ethene=C2H4

Propene=C3H6

But 2 ene (you'll get it when its drawn out) = C4H8

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Alcohols

  • From the hydroxyl group
  • Functional group= -OH (not minus OH)
  • Named by adding "ol" on the end

Methanol= CH3OH

Ethanol=C2H5OH

Propanol=C3H7OH

Butanol=C4H9OH

  • Uses= drinks obviously, removes marker pens, fuel, solvent.
  • The alcohol in drinks is ethanol.
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Carboxylic acids

  • Functional group= -COOH
  • pH below 4 (notice they're called acids)
  • Smells sour
  • Named by adding "oic acid" to the end

Methanoic acid= HCOOH

Ethanoic acid= CH3COOH

Propanoic acid=C2H5COOH

Butanoic acid=C3H7COOH

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Esters

Sorry this is hard :( DO NOT READ UNTIL LAST or it will confuse you and put you off

  • Made by combining an alcohol with a carboxylic acid.
  • Has a C=O double bond
  • Named by adding "yl" for the first part and "oate" for the second part e.g. methyl methanoate or ethyl ethanoate
  • You can also get something like methyl ethanoate or propyl methanoate.
  • It might be tricky as hell but hey, at least it smells sweet or like flowers :)
  • Used in perfumes, shampoos and deodorants that kind of thing. Also can be used in sweets.

Heres a couple:

Methyl methanoate=HCOOCH3

Ethyl ethanoate= CH3COOCH2CH3

Look up the displayed formula before attempting to draw them

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Comments

Alex

Really good!

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