Organic Reactions

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  • Organic Reactions
    • Reactions of the alkenes
      • The general formula for alkenes is CnH2n
        • Complete combustion of alkenes gives carbon dioxide and water, however, alkenes tend to burn in air with a smokier flame than alkanes because incomplete combustion takes place
      • Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, because they contain 2 fewer hydrogen atoms than alkanes
      • The alkenes have a C = C group of molecules. The C = C grouping is an example of a functional group. A 'family' of organic compounds of the same functional group is called a homologous series
      • The carbon-carbon double bond, C = C, makes the alkenes more reactive than the alkanes. Alkenes react by addition reactions
      • Alkenes react with hydrogen to produce alkanes. This reaction takes place at 60 degrees centigrade in the presence of a nickel catalyst
    • Structures of alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters
      • The first 4 members of the carboxylic acids are methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid and butanoic acid
      • Esters have the functional group -COO- If the H atom in the              -COOH- group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a hydrocarbon group, the compound is an Ester
      • Carboxylic acids are a functional group - COOH
      • Ethyl ethanoate has the structural formula CH3COOCH2CH3
      • Alcohols contain the functional group - OH. If 1 hydrogen atom from each alkane molecule is replaed with an - OH group, you get a homologous series of alcohols
        • The first 4 members of this series are methanol, ethanol, propanol and butananol

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