Aggression

AGGRESSION

Defined as...

  • Harms another human being
  • Is intentional 
  • Is outside the laws or rules of the game/activity

Negative Aggression

-Hostile Agression

  • Intention to harm outside of rules, as an emotional response to a performers situation.
  • Sole purpose is to harm

-Instrumental Aggression

  • Intention to harm as a means to another goal (aggression is the intsrument)
  • Tackling with great force with intention of making them fear you.

 

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AGGRESSION

Positive Aggression

-Channelled aggression

  • When you turn aggressive feelings into positive actions such as working hard

-Assertion

  • May involve the use of physcial force however is within the laws of the game 
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THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

Instinct Theory - Sigmund Freud

  • We all have the potential for aggressive behaviour
  • If the aggressive impulses weren't released, they could be directed inwards and cause psychological damage - need to release energy through aggressive acts.
  • Individuals displace their aggression from 'non-acceptable' to 'more acceptable' situations: (e.g. on sport field rather than at home)
  • This displacement is known as CATHARSIS 

'the release of pent-up emotions or feelings of aggression through harmles channels'

- A cathartic experience is supposed to allow a release of tension and emotions, resulting in the indiviudal feeling ess aggressive.

                                                                                 

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THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

Criticisms of Instinct Theory

  • No biological basis for behaviour found
  • Societies don't show similar levls fo aggressions
  • Social learning has controlling effect on people
  • Studies show that aggression can be learnt
  • States behaviour is emotional or spontaneous (hostile/reactive) but there are times when its pre-planned (instrumental)

Research

  • Genetics have isolated a gene that has a contolling effect on levels of neurotransmitters.
  • When the gene is absent or doesn't work efficiently, individuals more prone to aggression.
  • Most recent debate focuses on genetic inheritance and environmental factors.
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THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

Frustraton Aggression Hypothesis

'Aggressive behaviours always presupposes the existence of frustration and that the existence of frustration leads to some form of aggression.'

  • Frustration develops when goal directed behaviour or a need to achieve is blocked.
  • Frustration then leads to aggression.
  • If aggressive act is successful, frustration is released and the aggressor feels good - also known as a catharitc release.
  • Should aggression fail and results in punishment, further frustration is generated.

Criticisms

  • Not all individuals who experience frustration exhibit aggressive responses.
  • Some individualds find alternative ways to deal with their frustration
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THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

Aggressive Cue Theory - Leonoard Berkowitz

'acts of aggression are influenced by the presence of socially learnt cues or environmental situations, which makes committing aggression acceptable.'

(e.g hooligan swearing whilst watching a match)

-These social cues of aggression may be given from a coach and the crowd to act aggressively.

-Another stimuli might be a positive response from teamamtes to an act of aggression tht resulted in a beneficial movement/action.

-Seeing role models act aggressively in a similar situation to you can alter your aggressive tendencies.

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THEORIES OF AGGRESSION

Social Learning Theory - (proposed by Bandura but developed by Leakey).

  • Proposes that aggression is a learned social behaviour that is through direct reinforcement or through observational learning.
  • Many aggressive behaviour may be encouraged and reinforced
  • Social learning theory is the most optimistic approach to aggression, because if people can learn aggressive responses to certain situations and cues, then they can just as easily learn non-aggressive responses to the same situations. 

-Aggression is not biologically based but is nurtured through environmental forces.

-Learned by watching and copying role models and it becomes an excepted mode of behaviour if reinforced.

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CONTROLLING AGGRESSION

Punishing aggressive behaviour

Individual

Peers discouraging

Coach/Managers

Substitutions

 Fines

Player behaviour contract 

NGBs

Code of conduct

 Supporting referees 

Punishing aggressive behaviour

Reinforce assertive behaviour

Individual

Praise others

Coach/Managers

Praise and reward assertion

Show assertive role-models

NGBs

Fair play awards

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CONTROLLING AGGRESSION

Reducing/Controlling arousal

Individual

Mental rehearsal 

Channelling aggression

Coach/Managers

Avoid over arousing pre game

Focus on process as well as outcome

Avoid win at all costs ethic and knowing their plays

NGBs

Educate referees

Discuss with coaches

Avoiding aggressive situations

Individual

Learning to walk away

Marking another play if possible

Coach/Managers

Move player to another role

Ask player to take on responsibility

Substitute player

Change tactics

NGBs

Stagger derby matches, playing at neutral grounds

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