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Metal Oxide and Acid Reactions

Acid+Metal Oxide --> Salt + Water

Acid+Metal Hydroxide --> Salt + Water

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How to Work out a Mass in a Reaction

1-Write out Balanced Equation

2-Work out of Element's RFM in the formula then the whole formula's RFM.

3-Then Divide the whole formula's RFM to get 1 gram of it.

4. Then divide your element's RFM by the number which, you divided the whole formula's RFM by to get that 1 gram.

5. Times the new element number by how much of it you want. 

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Metal Ore extraction using Carbon

-Only metals less reactive than carbon can be extracted using carbon. 

-The carbon displaces the metal and the carbon gains oxygen (Oxidised) while the metal loses oxygen (Reduction).

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-Electrolysis means splitting up with electricity.

-It needs a liquid to conduct electricity called the electrolyte as it needs free electrons dissloved in water.

-Electrons are taken away from ions at positive electrode and given to other ions at negative electrode.

-Molten aluminium oxide has free electrons so it conducts electricity and the Al3+ ions are attracted to the negative electrode where they gain 3 electrons and become neutral aluminum atoms sink to the bottom.

-The negative O2- ions are attracted to the postive electrode where they each lose two electrons and the two neutral atoms combine to form O2 molecules.

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Gases in Air

-Some atmospheric gases are elements with only one type of atom.

-Others are compunds with more than one type of atom bonded together.

-The atmosphere us 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1 % argon and 0.04% carbon dioxide.

-Molecular substances have lower melting and boiling points as the intermolecular forces are very weak and they have no electrical conductivity as there are no free electrons.

-The intramolecular forces are very strong.

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Group 1

-Group 1 includes Lithium, Sodium, Potassium and all have one outer shell electron and are known as the alkali metals.

-They are shiny when you cut them but tarnish in oxygen.

-As you go down the group they become more reactive as there is increased distance from nucleus and they have a higher density but have lower melting and boiling points.

-When the Alkali metals react with water they produce hydrogen and react vigorously.

-A hydroxide of the metal forms in water and it makes an alkaline solution and the more violent the reaction the more reactive the alkali metal. 

-Alkali metals react vigorously with chlorine and this produces colourless crystalline salts.

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Group 7

-Group 7 contains Fluorine (a very reactive yellow gas at room temp), Chlorine (A fairly reactive yellow gas at room temp), Bromine (a dense orange liquid at room temp) and Iodine (A dark grey crystalline solid at room temp which forms a purple gas).

-Chlorine and Iodine are both toxic.

-Halogens have to be used in a fume cupboard as they have poisonous vapours.

-As you go down the group they become less reactive with higher melting and boiling points.

-More reactive halogens will displace less reactive halogens.

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Oxidisation and Reduction

-When a metal oxide loses it's oxygen it is reduced.

-The carbon that gains the oxygen is oxidised.

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