Distinguish between nationalism and racialism.
Nationalism, broadly, is the belief that the nation is the central principle of political organisation. The nation is a collection of people bound together by shared values and traditions, common language, religion and history, and usually occupying the same geographical area. Nationalism is therefore based upon two core assumptions.
First, humankind is naturally divided into discrete nations and, second, the nation is the most appropriate, and perhaps the only legitimate, unit of political rule. Classical political nationalism set out to bring the borders of the state into line with the boundaries of the nation, creating nation-states within which nationality and citizenship would coincide. Nationalism, in this sense, is associated with a principled belief in national self determination. However, nationalism is a complex and highly diverse ideologica lphenomenon, encompassing a range of political manifestations as well as cultural and ethnic forms.
Racism, broadly, is the belief that political or social conclusions can be drawn from the idea that humankind is divided into biologically distinct races whereas nations are cultural entities, races are genetic or biological entities. Strictly speaking,…