A2 English Language - Gender Theories


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- Girls use more mitigated directives such "let's" to get others involved rather than appeal to personal power

- Boys use more aggrivated or explicit directives "get off"

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Brown & Levinson 1980

- politeness theory

- positive politeness: more friendly attitude 

- negative politness: maintain barriers of distance 

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Cameron & Coats

- Women use tag questions more in the affective function 

- Men use tag questions more in the modal function indicating uncertainty 

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Deborah Jones

Gossip talks four forms 

- House talk - female equivalent of shop talk

- Scandal - judging behaviour of others, particulary women

- Bitching - anger at restricted role and inderor status 

- Chatting - mutal self disclosure 

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Women - Use more euphemisms

Men - Swear more

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Women defer in their speech to men so therefore use more polite standard forms

Women use - 

- Hedges and fillers

- Tag questions 

- "Empty" adjective

- Superpolite forms

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Jennifer Coates

- Swearing is class linked, not gender

- Women adopt a collaborative "shared floor" structure where overlap is seen as supporting

- 'Jam Session'

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