8 Mark Effects - Germany

  • Created by: goldstar3
  • Created on: 13-05-18 15:57

Treaty of Versailles

  • Weakened popularity of  Weimar Republic
    • 'soldiers stabbed in the back'
  • Ruined Germany's economy as passive resistance caused hyperinflation
1 of 17

Weimar Constitution

  • Proportional Representation meant that the govt was v unstable as there were many different views so difficult to pass laws  
  • Whenever compromise broke down, the Chancellor had to ask for Article 48 to be used to suspend the constitution (Parliament didn't have to be asked). 
    • Suggested this constitution didn't work
2 of 17

French Occupation of the Ruhr

  • Germany was united against France and Belgium and the govt's popularity increased due to their reaction
  • Germany lost income as a result, printing more notes meaning their value fell. This led to hyperinflation
3 of 17

Hyperinflation

  • Savings became worthless as did insurance policies and pensions. Mainly middle class
  • Farmers profited from high food prices and some businesses were able to pay off loans as the loans lost value
4 of 17

Spartacist Rising

  • Govt was not v strong & relied on workers' strikes and violence of Freikorps to stay in power
  • Extremist parties had become stronger from 1918-23.
    • Lesson that those with most military power could win
5 of 17

Kapp Putsch

  • Showed the govt had little military power and couldn't control own capital
  • However they did prefer Ebert's govt to Kapp's extreme right wing beliefs
6 of 17

Dawes Plan

  • Reparations reduced to affordable level
  • Coal output rose from 275,000 (1924) to 350 million (1929) tonnes - pre WW1 rates
  • Unemployment at lowest level in 10yrs
  • Made Germany dependent on US -- Wall St. Crash
7 of 17

Locarno Treaties

  • Germany was treated as an equal and relations in Europe were improved from 1925-1930
  • Ensured Germany's admission to the League of Nations in September 1926, helping to restore their reputation
8 of 17

Munich Putsch

  • Good publicity for NSDAP. Only served 9 months and fined 500 Reichmarks
  • Instead, tried to win votes through ballot box, through legal means called Reichstag Principle
9 of 17

Wall Street Crash

  • USA recalled loans and govt didn't have enough money to pay back
    • This led to 1000s of businesses closing and millions of jobs lost
  • Many people suffered starvation as unemployment benefits cut and taxes raised
  • Nazi popularity increased as they gave citizens a scapegoat (Jews, Communists and Weimar politicians) so violence increased
10 of 17

Young Plan

  • Strengthened Weimar Republic by easing burden of reparation payments
    • Passing penalty to unborn
  • Govt reputation enhanced - govt trusted by abroad therefore appeared stronger
11 of 17

Reichstag Fire

  • Hitler used the unease and confusion to consolidate his power and destroy the Communists. 4000 communist leaders arrested
  • Allowed Hitler to become a Dictator as he persuaded Hindenburg to declare state of emergency
    • He could do things without passing them through the Reichstag first
12 of 17

Enabling Act

  • It marked an end to the Weimar Constitution and the end of democracy in Germany as this was now a totalitarian state
  • In 1933 the Law against the Establishment of Parties took place, removing opposition of the NSDAP (Nazi Party)
13 of 17

Night of the Long Knives

  • The SA were now firmly under Hitler's control and all opposition to Hitler was destroyed
  • It ensured that people, especially non-Nazi supporters, were loyal to Hitler
14 of 17

Death of Hindenburg

  • Hitler was now completely in control of the Third Reich
  • The army now obeyed Hitler meaning he could use them against people like citizens or their military leaders
15 of 17

Nazi Policies towards Catholic Church

  • By agreeing not to interfere with schools/freedom of worship, opposition to Hitler's policies was reduced
  • The breaking of the Concordat in 1937 encouraged Catholics to oppose Nazi policies, but they couldn't because the State's control was too strong at this point
16 of 17

Nazi Policies towards Protestant Church

  • Weakened opposition by attempting to fuse nazi ethics w/ traditional Christianity
  • By late 1930s  it was too late for sizable Christian opposition to form e.g. Pastor Niemoller who spoke out against Nazi policies was sent to a concentration camp
17 of 17

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Development of Dictatorship: 1918-1945 resources »