8 Mark Effects - Germany

  • Created by: goldstar3
  • Created on: 13-05-18 15:57

Treaty of Versailles

  • Weakened popularity of  Weimar Republic
    • 'soldiers stabbed in the back'
  • Ruined Germany's economy as passive resistance caused hyperinflation
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Weimar Constitution

  • Proportional Representation meant that the govt was v unstable as there were many different views so difficult to pass laws  
  • Whenever compromise broke down, the Chancellor had to ask for Article 48 to be used to suspend the constitution (Parliament didn't have to be asked). 
    • Suggested this constitution didn't work
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French Occupation of the Ruhr

  • Germany was united against France and Belgium and the govt's popularity increased due to their reaction
  • Germany lost income as a result, printing more notes meaning their value fell. This led to hyperinflation
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  • Savings became worthless as did insurance policies and pensions. Mainly middle class
  • Farmers profited from high food prices and some businesses were able to pay off loans as the loans lost value
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Spartacist Rising

  • Govt was not v strong & relied on workers' strikes and violence of Freikorps to stay in power
  • Extremist parties had become stronger from 1918-23.
    • Lesson that those with most military power could win
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Kapp Putsch

  • Showed the govt had little military power and couldn't control own capital
  • However they did prefer Ebert's govt to Kapp's extreme right wing beliefs
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Dawes Plan

  • Reparations reduced to affordable level
  • Coal output rose from 275,000 (1924) to 350 million (1929) tonnes - pre WW1 rates
  • Unemployment at lowest level in 10yrs
  • Made Germany dependent on US -- Wall St. Crash
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Locarno Treaties

  • Germany was treated as an equal and relations in Europe were improved from 1925-1930
  • Ensured Germany's admission to the League of Nations in September 1926, helping to restore their reputation
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Munich Putsch

  • Good publicity for NSDAP. Only served 9 months and fined 500 Reichmarks
  • Instead, tried to win votes through ballot box, through legal means called Reichstag Principle
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Wall Street Crash

  • USA recalled loans and govt didn't have enough money to pay back
    • This led to 1000s of businesses closing and millions of jobs lost
  • Many people suffered starvation as unemployment benefits cut and taxes raised
  • Nazi popularity increased as they gave citizens a scapegoat (Jews, Communists and Weimar politicians) so violence increased
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Young Plan

  • Strengthened Weimar Republic by easing burden of reparation payments
    • Passing penalty to unborn
  • Govt reputation enhanced - govt trusted by abroad therefore appeared stronger
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Reichstag Fire

  • Hitler used the unease and confusion to consolidate his power and destroy the Communists. 4000 communist leaders arrested
  • Allowed Hitler to become a Dictator as he persuaded Hindenburg to declare state of emergency
    • He could do things without passing them through the Reichstag first
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Enabling Act

  • It marked an end to the Weimar Constitution and the end of democracy in Germany as this was now a totalitarian state
  • In 1933 the Law against the Establishment of Parties took place, removing opposition of the NSDAP (Nazi Party)
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Night of the Long Knives

  • The SA were now firmly under Hitler's control and all opposition to Hitler was destroyed
  • It ensured that people, especially non-Nazi supporters, were loyal to Hitler
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Death of Hindenburg

  • Hitler was now completely in control of the Third Reich
  • The army now obeyed Hitler meaning he could use them against people like citizens or their military leaders
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Nazi Policies towards Catholic Church

  • By agreeing not to interfere with schools/freedom of worship, opposition to Hitler's policies was reduced
  • The breaking of the Concordat in 1937 encouraged Catholics to oppose Nazi policies, but they couldn't because the State's control was too strong at this point
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Nazi Policies towards Protestant Church

  • Weakened opposition by attempting to fuse nazi ethics w/ traditional Christianity
  • By late 1930s  it was too late for sizable Christian opposition to form e.g. Pastor Niemoller who spoke out against Nazi policies was sent to a concentration camp
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