69 - 64BC - Cicero

Life of Cicero between 69 - 64BC. Includes: after verres; personal life; Lex Gabinia 67; Lex Manilia 66

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  • Created on: 23-12-12 17:45

After Verres - 69-64BC

After consulship ended in 70 Pompey and Crassus both turned down proconsular office. Crassus stayed in Rome because of buisness empire and political interest. Pompey wanted another command so stayed in Rome as he needed to remain high profile.

Senate contained majority of Optimates but their influence had been challenged through power of Tribunes being restored and Lex Auralia. - Had over turned the jury system. Expelled 64 senators. Census - enfranchisement of Italien citizens.

Restoration of Tribunes power in 70 was now to pay dividence.

Cicero began looking at praetor position and ran at earilest age possible - suo anno. He was elected in year 66BC - the election was contested and votes were counted three times. Cicero won each time.

First time Cicero gave a purely political speech - advocating passage of the Manilian Law. Proposed Pomey's appointment as supreme commander of war against Mithridates IV.  Cicero won over conservative members of senate which won Cicero support of Pompeians.

After praetor Cicero did not become governor wanting to stay in Rome instead. He started campaign for Consul.

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After Verres - Personal Life

Cicero had been married to Terentia for 11 years - didn't normally last that long and shows that theirs was a functioning marriage. They both got things out of the arrangement - Cicero got her families political advantages and daughter Tullia.

Family brought Cicero political advantages as it showed him to be stable and responsable. Being able to marry Tullia off would also create more political alliences.

67BC - Tullia's engagement. She was 11. Fiance was Gauis and his ancestors had been praetors, respected consul and censor.

Cicero's father died leaving him Patas Familias.

Cicero's investment in property was also a political venture.

67BC - Cicero was in ideal position to run for praetorship both personally and financially.

PROBABLY during his praetorship Atticus and Cicero arranged marrige of their siblings.

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Lex Gabinia 67

Gabinius (Tribune) accused Lucuilus, who now led mutionus, exhausted Army, of deliberatly prolonging the war against Mithridates for his own financial benefit. - Plebs were suffering because of no grain due to war. This was the first time Tribune had interferred, didn't go as well as hoped.

Piracy in the 60's were massive problem, Romans were not good at fighting at sea and they heavily depended on imports which Pirates stopped. Pirates diversified into kiddnapping Caesar - one of captives. Mithridates saw Pirates as useful allies.

Gabinius seized initiative and proposed ex-consul be given proconsular imperium. - He doesn't openly name Pompey however it is obvious that is who he wants. Power to last 3 years, extended over entire med. 50 miles inland, equality with any proconsul in any province. - huge amount of power worried the senate. Plebs and Equites agreed with Gabinius. Assigned 15 military leagues of his choice each with proconsular imperium.

Lex Gabinia did not mention Pompey, however he was clear choice. Senate tried to prevent it.

Cicero had lots too lose if everything went wrong as he was running for praetor so he kept quite which is a contraversial move.

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Lex Manilia 66

Pompey succeeded in 40 days.

People had been so confidant in Pomepy that grain prices had immediatly fallen.

No piracy in the med after 67.

Success emphasied by further failures of Lucullus in East. Still no vicotry over Mithradates - 7000 Romans killed, 24 Tribunes.

66 - Tribune Manilius proposed eastern command transferred to Pompey.

Senate opposed suggestion - less intense than before,

Cicero spoke of Pompey in first political speech.

Cicero wants to be consul - needs votes from senate. Showed support for Pompey.

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