1F Cicero's Speeches

The events preceeding the speeches and the main points of the speeches taught to me in class.


For Sextus Roscius 80BC

Sextus Roscius's father's estate had been sold to Chrysogonus - a friend of Sulla's. To ensure possesion of the estate, Chrysogonus accused Roscius of killing his own father himself. Cicero defended Roscius.

This was Cicero's first case as a young law student. His oratory skills impressed the senate. He risked becoming an enemy of Sulla because he was accusing Sulla's friend of corruption and involvement in the crime. 

Roscius was aquitted and Cicero proved it was Chrysogonus's thugs who murdered Roscius's father. It is not know as to whether the estate was returned.

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Against Verres 70BC

As an questor Cicero prosecuted Gaius Verres. He took on the case because he had links to Sicily having been quaester there in 75BC and he was regarded as successful after the Roscius trial. He was against Verres' defender and friend, Hortensius who was campaigning to become consul for 69BC. The president of the extortion court was Marcus Metellus, who was the brother of Quintus Metellus, who was also campaigning to become consul alongside Hortensius for 69BC. They were aristocrats. They had patronage in Sicily. They were supporters of Sulla. Cicero was risking both his career and being put on the prescription lists.

Cicero collected evidence in documents and interviews from the people of Siciliy in 50 of the 110 days he was given. He had to win the trial before the Roman Games began otherwise Hortensius and Metellus would become consul and they would surely aquit Verres.

Verres attempted to stop his exile. He bribed the tribunes with baskets of Sicilian money not to vote Cicero as aedile.He bought another case to attention to delay the trial until the following political year.

Cicero won the trial and defeated Hortensius the skilled orator. Verres went into voluntary exile before the end of the trial.

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Supporting the Lex Manilia 66BC

As a praetor Cicero supported Gaius Manilius in making Pompey supreme commander against Mithridates IV in the third Mithridatic War.

He needed the support of Pompey and the Pompeians in order for him to become a consul, since he was a novus homo.

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The Cataline Orations 63BC

Catalina was running for consulship, for the second time after having lost the first time, using bribary. When Catalina lost the election again his followers assembled an army of Sulla's veterans. They planned to burn Rome and kill as many senators as they could.

Cicero, now consul, exposed his plan to the senate who then accused Catalina of being a traitor and Catalina went into self imposed exile.

An SCU was ordered which gave Cicero as consul absolute power.

Even though the senate majority including Caesar though that exile was sufficient punishment...

Cicero then exiled Catalina's conspirators without trial.

This then led to his exile in 57BC. (Stupid Cicero).

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Against Rullus' Bill 64BC

Rullus wanted to redistribute land that promised to Pompey's veterans. It is believed this idea was not in the farmer's interest but to embarrass Pompey.

Cicero delivered four speeches in favour of Pompey owning the land and won the land for him.

This again put Cicero in Pompey and the Pompeians' favour.

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The Corn Supply 57BC

After Cicero returned from exile he made a speech promoting Pompey to be in charge of corn supply.

This showed his favour to Pompey's assistance in Cicero's return.

In turn Pompey named Cicero one of the legati connected with the commission.

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For Milo 52BC

Cicero's friend, Milo - one of the tribunes who assisted his return from exile - was accused of the murder of Clodius.

Cicero didn't attempt to convince the judges that Milo didn't murder Clodius but reasons that it was in self defence, justified and was beneficial to the republic. He brought up the Bona Dea scandal and Clodius' affairs with Caesar's wife and his own sister.

Milo was not accquited and sent into exile. His reputation and his gangs worked against him.

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The 14 Phillipics 44-43BC

Cicero conciously modelled his speeches on those of Demosthenes against tyrannt  Phillip II of Macedon.

His first Phillipic was the day after Antony hosted the games as a celebration of Caesar. The last Phillipic was the day of the Battle of Mutina.

Cicero appealed to get the young Octavian pro praetorian rank. He was also against Antony and in his last Phillipic tried to persuade the senate to declare him enemy of the state.

By giving Octavian this rank, after the consuls of 43 were killed Octavian took power of the army and marched on Rome demanding consulship. He switched sides and joined Antony. This led to the pair of them creating prescription lists so they could legally kill their enemies. Cicero was on that list and was killed in December 43BC.

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