What is education policy/ development of state edu
Gov. strategies for education, legal changes/ instructions to schools, industrialisation created need for educated/traiend w/force= development of compulsory state-run education
Tripartite system(1944), grammar(m|c)/modern(w|c)secondarys, selection 11+exam. all took same rest=legitimated resulting class inequality.
Comprehensive system(1965) abolished 11+, all attended same local comprehensive schools BUT some grammar's remained.
Functionalists-comprehensives as meritocratic(pupils given longer to develop), promoting integrtion of all social classes (all together)
eval: Ford- little mixing social classes in comprehensive schools.
Marxists- reproducing inequality streaming/labelling, legitimate inequality "myth of meritocracy", looks like everyone has eqaul opportunity
Consumer choice/competition=education market, marketisation policies-central theme since 1988 Education Reform Act=league tables,open enrolment,formula funding, opting out LEA control, free schools, acadamies, business sponsorship.
Parentocracy- policies give parents greater choice and raise standards.
Reproduction of inequality-
league tables= schools w/good results "cream skim" best(mainly m|c), less succesful schools get less able pupils ('silt-shifting')
Funding formula= funded on number pupils they recruit, good schools +money(improve staffing/facilities), attract +pupils
Parental choice=Gerwitz-m|c privelleged-skilled choosers(economic/cultural captial=advantage), w|c disconnected-local choosers(lack capital/settle nearest school), semi-skilled choosers(ambiotious w|c, frustrated at inability to get school they wanted).
Myth of Parentocracy- marketisation legitames inequality, look as if all parents eqaully free to choose good school= not the case
New Labour & Evaluation
NL maintained marketisation but introduced policies to reduce inequality:
city acadamies, Education Action Zones, Aim Higher programmes(disadvantaged areas) and Educaion Maintance Allowance(poorer 16-18yr) increased spending on state education.
How can competition work without producing ineqaulity?(winners and losers).
Polices contradictory- EMAs help 16+stay on but now pay for uni tuition fees.
Left private education system untouched.
'Choice' and 'diversity' just nice ways of saying 'inequality'-ensures w|c stay disadvantaged
More spending/focus on "learning society" = genuine acheivements.
Evidence acadamies raised standards mixed- some show improved results, others haven't.
Conservative policies since 2010
Acclerated move away from comprehensive system run by LEAs, policies influenced by neo-liberal ideas(reducing role of state through marketisation/privatisation).
Neoliberalism&privatisation-state commisions private companies to provide serves- privatisation growing trend:
-acadamies:all encouraged,funded by central gov,some part of privately-owned chains,
-free schools:state funded, set up and run by parents/teachers/religious groups/businesses.(critics: take fewer d.adv pupils//only those w/educated family bacgrounds benefit)
-fragmented centralisation: Ball, fragmented patchwork not comprehensive system=greater inequality. +centralised=gov. require schools to be acadamies/allow free schools to be set up.
-spending cuts: cuts gov.spending(Sure Start,school building,EMAs,+uni fees), some Pupil premiums school recieve for disadvantaged pupils cut.
privatisation of education: Ball- education ceasing to be a public good, privatised commodity =owned by private companies/bought and sold in educ. market, source of profit for capitalists(buildings,ofsted,prividing supply teachers,running LEAs). Hall- "long march of neoliberal revolution".
blurring public/private- senior public sector employees(headteachers/civil servants) mmove to private sector of educ= insider knowledge, win contracts.
conservative policies (cont.)
Globalisation of policy- (many) foreign education companies foreign-owned, some UK business work overseas privatising/exporting UK educ. policy for sale abroad, nation-states becoming less important in policy-making=becoming globalised.
Cola-isation of schools- provate secor sells to pupils(vending machines)= develops brand loyalty(logos,sponsorship,voucher schemes). benefits to school often limited.
Ethnicity and policy- gone through 3 stages:assimilation,multi-cultural educ,social inclusion
1960/70s- encourage assimilation(person/group adopt practices of another culture)e.g. english as second langauge programmes.
1980/90s-switched to valuing all cultures,multi-cultural education policies (including black studies in mainstream curriculum)
recently- social inclusion(e.g. legal duty on schools promote racial equality)but Mirza, even more recent policies too limited in scope.
Gender and policy- equal opportunities: GIST and WISE= girls into science/technology.
(NOT CONSERVATIVE-1988>)National Curriculum= both study largely same subjects e.g. science compulsory helped to equalise opportunites(non traditional subject choices, seen as men's before).