3.1.a Lympstone & Toxteth

  • Created by: lee8444
  • Created on: 06-02-20 13:59

Characteristics that change the identity of place

  • Physical - altitude, slope, aspect, drainage, geology
  • Demography - number of people, age, gender, ethnicity
  • Socio-economic - employment, income, family status, education
  • Cultural - religion, local traditions, local clubs, societies
  • Political - local, regional and national government
  • Built environment - age, style, density, materials
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Natural Characteristics


  • Small valley
  • Extensive tidal mudflats on 1500m wide river Exe estuary
  • Small pebble beaches


  • Lad rises up from the River Mersey flowing from the Northeast
  • Fast flowing past Toxteth so there is little foreshore at Toxteth
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Lympstone: Past Characteristics

  • First the Saxons forced out the Celtic inhabitants
  • Norman conquest changed the area to French families
  • 13th Century - Lympstone was a small port operating under Exeter with cross-channel links
  • 19th Century - Shipbuilding is the major industry. As ship size increased, shipbuilding ceased
  • Lympstone was transformed into a small fishing village, especially shellfish such as mussels
  • 1840s - Tourism started, especially for wealthy families from Exeter and East Devon causing some expansion
  • 1861 - Railway reached Lympstone incresing the connectivity. Time-space compression allowed the shellfish industry to expand into a wider market such as Exeter
  • 20th Century - Lympstone became a dormitory settlement for Exeter but kept its sense of community as a small fishing village in Devon
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Toxteth: Past Characteristics

  • Saxons had the first settlement and was one of a handful of villages around the Mersey as said in the Domesday survey of 1086
  • Changed hands after the Norman conquest
  • King John took it in the 13th Century
  • Became a hunting forest and was fenced off for 300 years
  • 16th Century - Agriculture and small-scale industry started generating power from the damned stream
  • Liverpool was a major player during the industrial revolution as it was a major port
  • Copper works in 1772 along with a ceramics factory
  • Flour milling and brewing followed after to serve the dramatically increasing population
  • Greenfield site was developed in hopes to attract the middle-class with an over-ambitious housing scheme for those wanting to escape the inner-city life
  • 19th Century - demands for space grew causing back-to-back housing which was poorly constructed
  • Cholera and typhoid spread quickly due to unhygenic conditions
  • Terraced housing spread throughout Toxteth
  • Over 150 years, Toxteth was transformed from a small rural community into an inner-city suburb in a large metropolitan area
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Present day characteristics (1)


  • Lympstone has a very top-heavy age structure with 24.4% above the age of 65 whereas Toxteth has significantly fewer elderly residents at just 10.6%
  • Lympstone is 98.9% white whilst Toxteth has 21.4% of their population being non-white. This is due to immagrants choosing Toxteth due to the diverse range of job opportunities. In particular from the Carribean, East Asia and Africa
  • This can also be due to the large port making it easier for immagrants to reach Liverpool and Toxteth compared to Devon and Lympstone


  • Very few owner-occupiers in Toxteth
  • High amount are renting in Toxteth
  • More car availability in Toxteth but low amount in Lympstone
  • Worse health in Toxteth
  • Less people with no qualifications in Lympstone
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Present day characteristics (2)


  • Toxteth celebrates a range of different religions and festivals such as Eid and Ramadan with a heavy importance on Friday Prayers too. Also services for the Black African Caribbean communities to worship God slightly differently than in the UK. There is also a Synagogue for Jews to celebrate Judaism
  • Lympstone only celebrates Christian festivals such as Christmas and Easter


  • Lympstone has a parish council with 11 elected people serving the local government. Power is relatively limited to just their district (East Devon) and local council (Devon) and they mainly do small projects such as lighting up roads and building local sports fields
  • Toxteth is a part of the Riverside Ward which is made up of 30 wards making up the Liverpool City Council providing education, regenration and housing

Built environment

  • Adapted by migrant communities in Toxteth changing building use or tourism in Lympstone
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Shifting flows in Lympstone

  • More positive than Toxteth
  • Growing significance of knoledge economy with 35% classed as managers, directors, senior officials or in proffessional occupations
  • Employment flow into Exeter in services and knoledge-based firms
  • Met office moved to Exeter from Reading in 2003 being the largest IT move in Europe creating lots of jobs for highly skilled workers
  • Exeter's tertiary sector increased due to the 3000 staff working at the University of Exeter
  • New major hospital also created healthcare jobs
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Shifting flows in Toxteth

  • Loss of employent in the docks
  • Loss of employment in manufacturing jobs as it was cheaper to outsource to LIDCs and EDCs for jobs such as flour milling or sugar refining
  • Movement of docks further north cost many people their jobs
  • Caused Toxteth riots in 1981 which is by far their biggest low-point in history
  • Since the 80s
    • Former docks have been regenerated
    • Tate Liverpool opened in 1988
    • Liverpool became the European Capital of culture in 2008
    • Aimed to boost tertiary employment in the local area
    • Waterfront is now a UNESCO site
    • EU has created low carbon sector jobs such as in offshore wind farm technology
  • Main issue in Toxteth today is recruitment as many people in the area don't have the required skills for the jobs that need filling in Toxteth. Therefore, maybe they would be better in investing in education for the future so that the next generation will have better qualifications than those currently in the education system
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