313 exam




paraetamol- mild pain + reduce fever, less irritaing to stomach than asprin 

overdoes of paraetamol causes liver damage 

co-codamol- paracetamol with codeine 

NSAIDS- ( non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) 

ibruprofen + asprin 

produce bleeding, gastric irritation and ulceration

not good for people with asthma

interfer with other drugs like hypertension 

asprin over 16 as can cause reyes syndrome (fatal brain disease) 

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fight infection 

anaerobic- thrives in oxygen-poor areas-- perio pockets, need different antibiotics 

aerobic- thrives in oxygen-rich enviroments 

overdose causes immunity 

penicillan - prevent spread in pericoronitis and cellulitis - 250mg x 4, 3-5days, can cause severe allergic reaction 

amoxicillin- penicillan with broad range of action - 250mg x 4, 5days

erythromycin- alternative if patients allergic to penicillan 

metronidazole- against anaerobic bacteria with pericoronitis, periodontal disease and AUG- 200mg-400mg x3, 3 days. not for pregnant ladies, and no alcohol. 

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sedative / hypnotics

sedative- allevates anxiety 

hypnotic- producees sleep and drowsiness 

nitrus oxide - inhaled 

benzodiazepines - orally or intravenously 

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controlled substances act- control drugs uder 5 groups (scheduals)

midazolam + temazepam are schedual 3 

midazolam- IV sedation, not in controlled cabinet

tamazepan- oral sedation tablet or oral suspention, stored in controlled cabinet 

invoices for controlled drugs for 2 years 

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reversal drugs

midazolam given too quickly or at too high concentration, over sedation can cause:

  • hypoxia 
  • loss of consciousness 
  • respiratory arrest
  • respiratory depression 

flumazenil (anexate)- reversal of sedation, can be used in emergency case

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also known as antiepileptic or antiseizure drugs

it is diverse group of pharmacological agents used in treatment used in epileptic seizures


available as epanutin: chewable infatabs 50mg, oral suspention 30mg/5ml 

phenytoin tablets 100mg 

phenytoin sodium flynn: hard capsules 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 300 mg

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signs- clammy skin, pale, low blood pressure, loss of consciousness,weak and thready pulse 

symptoms- dizziness, tunnel vision, nausea

  • lay patient flat and elevate legs, loosen tight clothing,
  • give oxygen 
  • give glucogel or dextrose tablets when consciousness returns to restore blood sugar levels 
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genetic or aquired through brain damage, disruption of electrical activity in brain causing fit 

  • tonic-clonic seizure 
  • absenses 

signs- loss of consciousness, becomes rigid, falls and becomes cyanosed (tonic phase), followed by jerking movements (clonic phase), frothing from mouth and urinary incontinance 

symptoms- warning (aura), metallic taste or garlic, or visual

protect from injury, remove on lookers , give oxygen, place in recovery position when convulsive movements subside

administer 10mg buccal midazolam for seizure lasting more than 5 minutes, call 999

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hypersensitivity condition 

airways narrow in response to exposure to inhaled particles 

exhaled air forced out and has difficulty breathing 

response can happen during exercise, stressful or fearful situations 

signs- breathless with wheezing on expiration,, cyanosis (blue lips), restlessness, cent compete sentences, placing themselves in tripod position 

syptoms- difficulty in breathing, sensation of suffocating or drowning 

sit down and take slow steady breaths, salbutamol inhaler + spacer + oxygen, one puff of inhaler ery 30-60seconds up to 10 puffs

call 999 if feeling worse or after taking 10 puffs, if dont arrive in 15mins repeat

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