313 exam



types of records: Personal details, Medical history, Dental charts, Radiographs, Photographs, Study models, Orthodontic measurements. 

records kept: personal details, medical history, dental charts, radiographs, photographs, treatment plans, consent froms, study models 

dental records should not be disclosed to a third party without permission, unless they have the patients written consent. 

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data protection act 1998

  • patient information must be confidential, this is any information held in their records
  • they should also never be discussed infront of others. 
  • attendence should not be revealed to anyone 
  • dental records kept for a necessary time, for children this is up to age 25 , for adult it's 11 years, whichever is longer.
  • no none should be able to see anothers records
  • written comunications sealed in an envelope 
  • paper records in locked enviroment, electrical records password protected 

where you can disclose patienst information: road traffic act 1998, dental practice divison, child to parent or legal guardian, requested to polisce for public best interest, prevention of terriorism act 1989

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access to health records

  • only dentist can access records and respond in 40 days 
  • request made in writing 
  • patient identity checked + confirmed 
  • patient can have any inaccuracies ammended
  • abreviations explained 
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freedom of information

  • right to ask any public sector or orginisation for recorded information on a subject 
  • anyone can request for imformation 
  • if asking about information about yourself this is under data protection
  • should recieve information in 20 days, if longer the organisation will contact you

what you need to include when making one: name, and address, desciption of information you want, 

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uk/ zsigmondy-palmer charting: 

  • divided into 4 quadrants (ur, ul, lr, ll)
  • permanent teeth 1-8
  • deciduous teeth A-E
  • diagrammatic version
  • symbols and abbreviations used 

FDI (federtion dentaire international):

  • 2 digit version
  • each quadrant given a nuber (1, 2, 3, 4)
  • for child it is divided into 4 quadrants (5, 6, 7, 8)
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blacks clasifications

  • class 1- single surface
  • class 2- proximal surfaces
  • class 3- cavity on mesial or distal on incisor or canine 
  • class 4- like class 3 but including incisal edge
  • class 5- on cervical margin
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BPE Scores

code 0- healthy gums, no bleeding, no treatment required 

code 1-  mild gingivitis, bleeding on probing, will need ohi advice, use floss and toothbrush. suffering from mild gingivitis 

code 2- presence of calulus or defective restoration, will need scale and polish or removal or replacement of defective restoration. suffering from marginal gingivitis 

code 3- pockets less than 5.5, will need root surface debridment (RSD) and a six pocket chart, suffering from periodontitis 

code 4- pockets are more than 5.5, will need full mouth 6 point pocket chart, subgingival debridment, they are suffering from periodontitis 

*- gingival recession of furcation involvment present 

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external checks

skin- skin colour, facial symmetry and blemishes, this would include moles as could be a sign of skin cancer

lips- colour change, abnormalities like lumps, blemishes or cold sores 

lymth nodes- under mandible and in neck, for swelling, lumps could be a sign of infection 

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)- clicking, pain and discomfort

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internal checks

labial, buccal, and sulcas muscosa- colour, texture and moisture levels 

palatal mucosa- hard and soft tissues and tonsils

tongue- colour, texture, symmetry, movement, and level of movement

floor of mouth- colour texture and swelling 

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methods of assessments


study models


visial inspection 

manual inspection 

mouth mirrors 

dental probes 


periodontal probe 


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right angled probe- is used to find caries, decay and calculus, as wella s overhanging restorations.

periodontal probe (CPITN OR WHO)- used for bpe score

brault probe- used for iterproximal areas

sickle probe- interproximal areas, feeling for caries and tissues

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transillumination and vitality

trasilllumination- a light that shines on a tooth and shwis frcatures, caries and fissures

non-vital tooth- dead tooth 

vital tooth- a alive tooth vitality tests: cold test, hot test and an electric test. 

a person with a dead tooth will not feel anything, if reacts highly they have pulptitis and if they react slightly tooth is vital, if the patient reacts near the end then the tooth is dying and root canal would be done. 

cold test uses endofrost or ethyl chloride 

electric test is more accurate, it uses tooth paste and a mild electric current, you cnat use it on someone who has a pace maker 

hot test uses gutapercha or green stick and is harder to do 

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mobility recording

grade1- side to side movement less than 2mm

grade 2- side to side movement more than 2mm

grade 3- vertical movement as well 

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full perio assessment

it involves:

six individual pocket depths recorded around each tooth 

gingival bleeding recorded for each tooth 

plaque scores 

mobility recorded 

vitality recorded 

study models 



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ortho measurements

used for patients being referred for ortho treatment 

records taken: classification of occlusion, overjet and overbite measurement, presence and location of crowding in each dental arch, presence of retained deciduous teeth, tooth rotations, spacing and unerupted teeth 

IOTN score iedntify if pateint are eligible for treatment on NHS

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x-ray periapicals


unerupted teeth and retained roots 

prior to a difficult extraction 

chronic alveolar abscesses 

root treatment 

periodontal disease


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3cm- 4cm 

film against lingual surface of teeth 

shows crowns and interdental spaces of molars and pre molars 

prosteria teeth in occlusion

horizontal bitewing- view interproximal areasof prosteria teeth, occlusal and recurrent caries, restoration overhang

vertical bitewing- view periodontal bone levels of posteria teeth and presence of true periodontal pockets 

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plane view of mandible and maxilla 

unerrupted teeth 

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lateral oblique

13cm- 18cm

half view of OPG but depends on technique used 

assessment + presence of unerupted teeth 

fractures of mandible 

evaluation of lesions such as cysts, tumours 

views of salivary glands or TMJ 

alternative to intra oral views due to gagging or other difficulties 

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panoramic radiography (OPG)


unerupted teeth 



bone disease


also known as dental pantomograph or orthopantomograph (OPG)

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cephalometric radiography

cassette 18cm- 24 cm

side and front views taken with cephalostat

orthodontic diagnosis

oral surery such as surgical alteration of jaw relationship 

location of the position and angulatation of unerupted upper caines 

it is also known as skull x-ray 

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basic methods of producing x-rays 

directly onto a film

using x-ray to create a light pattern, which exposes the film 

using digital image receptors 

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intensifying screens + x-ray films

intensifying screens 

plates containing phosphers which glow when struck by x-rays 

light produces latent image in film 

reduces x-ray dose needed 

x-ray films consist of:

film in middle- green with pimple 

black paper or card

plastic light tight wrapping 

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paralleling- held parallel to long axis of tooth being exposed 

bisecting angle- film placed intra-orally and angulation of long axis of tooth against film determined by operator 

paralleling requires beam aiming devices and film holders 

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types of teeth- incisors and lateral incisors, first and second premolars , first second and third molars 

function of teeth:

cut up and chew food 

support oral, tissues and clear speech 

expose food surfaces to enzymes and allow digestion 

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deciduous: roots and cusps

  • upper central insisor: 1 root, 0 cusps 
  • upper lateral incisor: 1 root, 0 cusps
  • upper canine: 1 root, 0 cusps
  • upper first molar: 3 roots, 4 cusps
  • upper seconds molar: 3 roots, 5 cusps 
  • lower central incisor: 1 root, 0 cusps 
  • lower lateral incisor: 1 root, no cusps
  • lower canine: 1 root, 0 cusps
  • lower first molar: 2 roots, 4 cusps
  • lower second molar: 2 roots, 5 cusps
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permanent roots and cusps

  • upper central incisor- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • upper lateral incisor- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • upper canine- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • upper first pre-molar- 2 roots, 2 cusps
  • upper second pre- molar- 1 root, 2 cusps
  • upper first molar- 3 roots, 5 cusps
  • upper second molar- 3 roots, 4 cusps
  • upper third molar- 3 roots, 4 cusps
  • lower central incisor- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • lower lateral incisor- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • lower canine- 1 root, 0 cusps
  • lower first pre-molar- 1 root, 2 cusps
  • lower second pre- molar- 1 root, 2 cusps
  • lower first molar- 2 roots, 5 cusps
  • lower second molar- 2 roots, 4 cusps
  • lower third molar- 2 roots, 4 cusps
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deciduous eruption dates

  • central incisor upper- 10 months 
  • lateral incisor upper- 11 months 
  • canine upper- 19 months 
  • first molar upper- 16 months 
  • second molar upper- 29 months 
  • central incisor lower- 8 months 
  • lateral incisor lower- 13 months 
  • canine lower- 20 months 
  • first molar lower- 16 months 
  • second molar lower- 27 months 
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permanent dentition eruption dates

  • upper central incisor- 7-8 years
  • upper lateral incisor- 8-9 years
  • upper canine- 10-12 years
  • upper first pre- molar- 9-11 years
  • upper second pre- molar- 10-11 years
  • upper first molar- 6-7 years
  • upper second molar- 12-13 years
  • upper third molar- 18-25 years
  • lower central incisor- 6-7 years
  • lower lateral incisor- 7-8 years
  • lower canine- 9-10 years
  • lower first pre-molar- 9-11 years
  • lower second pre-molar- 9-11 years
  • lower first molar- 6-7 years
  • lower second molar- 11-12 years
  • lower third molar- 18-25 years
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