The position of monarchy
- Previous monarch was Elizebeth 1- loyalty to monarch
- She established the proterstant church putting herself as head
- Religiously tolerant - allied with France and Spain
- had a good navy
- Bequethed a debt of £400,000 althouigh not cripperling as she also bequethed £300,000 voted in taxes she had also sold aolt of crown land and properties which lowered the crowns anual income
- She made most her money from tunnage and poundage which she exploited. also biased with monopolies
- weak parliament-had to be controlled
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- James wanted peace-'rex pacififca'
- He was a moderate puritan- like Elizabeth he was religiously tolerant 'universal king' and he saw catholic church as 'mother church'
- good personality-flexible-intelligent, confident but also arrogant and juvernial
- James was extravogant- and had an expensive lifestyle
- Had had issues with the Kirk-Scottish churchmen who annoyed James calling him 'gods silly vessel'-he preferred the COE
- was a successful king in Scotland achieved rule and order
- Divine right of king-wrote books on it- he was a god- absolutism
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Why he wanted Union
- Power-if he united the two isles would become more powerful- would mean better security and army, better trade with europe
- Easier- it would be easier to rule both kingdoms. Scot and Eng v different- would reduce power of kirk (opposition)
- Security- would end conflict between the two nations- Anglo-scottish border- allies with France may invade eng
- Believed it was his divine right to be ruler of both kingdoms as one
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opposition to union
- Parliment didn't want to be a unifeied mainly because their was a deep routed hatrid of the 'savage' scots-
- Political- Also eng MPs believed scottish nobilality would take key roles in parliments and this wasnt helped by James scot courtriers
- sociel- people didnt want to lose heritage- both sides
- Economic- Scotland seen as poor, had nothing to contribute. immagrants take their jobs and more taxes spent on them.
- They posed a obstacle and James compromised.
- It did however suceed in some areas. such as a united currency, duel identity after born in 1603, james name as King of Great britain, a union flag, pacification of borders- paved the way to union in 1707
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The church under James rule Catholics
- rumors that James would cancel recusant fines due to his background (cath mum and wife) but this didnt happen.
- 1604-werent involved in H.C.C shows they were a minority and views werent involved in anglican church
- 1605-Unhappy witrh James and parliment- extreamist cathlics attempted to blow up goverment and parliment-plot failed and incrased catholic punishement-couldnt live in london-increased recusant fine and introduced oath of alliegence
- Spanish marrige negotiations-could have meant a better standard of life for catholics
- Book of sports-condemned Catholics who didn't go to church.
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James church and the puritans
- 1603-The millanary petition- list of request of things they werent happy with- shows dislocation of puritans from anglican church
- 1604-The Hampton court conference-Meeting betwen anglican and puritans- Puritans expressed thier views on A church and allowed James to establish his religious standing- However although he agreed with some of the Ps views he could financielly carry them out- Did however agree to publish a bible (allowed him more influence.
- 1604-Bancroft was Arch Bishop- Not as calvanist as some Ps wanted
- 1604- the forcing of the bancroft cannons on clergy- parl protested and 90 prot clergy died.
- 1610- happy James didnt elect arminiam arch bishop instead calvanist called abott
- 1611-new bible- didnt meet puritans expectations just gave james more power
- Palatinate negotiations- commited to purutanism- keep religious balance
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Paliment and James Perogative
contitutional conflict over issues of parlimentry perogative.
- 1604- Buckinghamshire election- King wanted Forteque (a royal counciller). Goodwin however won- Kins court of chacery said it was invalid victory as he hadnt payed his debts.-Fortesque won secound election. Hoever Parliment belived it was their perogative to establish deputed election not court and james agreed to a third parliment- important as stopped the threat of absolutism
- Sir Thomas Shirly case. he was an MP arrested for debt- parliment said that whilst parliment were sitting that MPs had freedom from arrestexept treason. Parliment won the dispute abd firmly established priveledge
- The commons felt misled by J and Cecil and drew up 'the form of apology and satisfaction'.They wanted James to understand their rights and privledges. They felt the princes perogative but the publics werent. They belived they were defending theirs and the publics rights but James thought they were attacking his perogative and and the form was never given to J
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Parl and Finance 1
- Parl voted Tonage and poundage for Js life. James wanted more money to pay from Es funeral and his coronation. The commons issued a petition to abolish purveyance ( Purveyance is the right of the Crown to requisition goods and services for royal use) -Cecil sad they would only agree to this in return of compensation
- After gun powder plot James used emotions to get some subsidies but turned out he was spending them on the debt of two of his fravs.
- parliemnt felt that the money they would give him through taxes was wasted on his scottish fravorites not the public, with the grant of money they issued a long list opf greivences including monopolies (buy the rights to supply a comodity) impositons (tax on imports) purveylance and wardship
- Forth session- cecil wanted subsidy of £400,000 to pay of royal debtt , improve navy and meet aditional expence.
- anger over impositions after bates case. levied in new book of rates after the case (making it legal). James ignored parliments unhappiness and parliment attempted to get it made illegal again.
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Parl and Finance 2
- great contract- wanted a lump sum of £600,00p and a anual tax of £200,000 in return for wardship and purveylance. Parl belived that would just go fravs, also that they were scared of absolutism. negotiations were ended.
- SECOUND PARLIMENT
- wanted a marrige between charles and french royal house would solve financiel probs with dowry of £240,000. However frasnce on the brink of war so negotiations ended.
- James also asked for subsidy for the funeral of his son Prince Henry and daughters marrige. The commons challenged his extravogance and his impositions. Clash of both sides (point of view of charles)- could give up imoositions as were a big source of income and had to be well compensated. (parliment belived)- impositions were illegal and an attack on his people. Hostilities began and James disolved parliment
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james and fravorites
- allows james to declare his ideas on union as to say on his right side
- sabotaged the great contract as to potect his personal revenue.
- scottish fravorite to James, showered by james with money, offices and titles
- The kings involvment with cars divorce caused the reputation of court to fall
- People were also afraid of a pro spanish court as the Howards were a C fam
- James disolved the first parliment after they told him to send his favs home
inroduction of Bukingham
- called against backdrop of public outrage at the reputation of Js court-filled by howard and carr families
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