12.1-Alkane properties

- General formula CnH2n+2

Saturated hydrocarbon (single covalent bonds-sigma bonds)

- Sigma bonds are formed from orbital overlap and can freely rotate

- Tetrahedral shape

- Increase in carbon chain length means BP increases as more e-, points of contact, therefore London forces increase

- Increase in branching means BP decreases as less points of contact, therefore London forces decrease

- Only soluble in non-polar solvents

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12.2-Chemical reactions

- Low general reactivity as bonds are strong and non-polar

- Combustion can be complete or incomplete

- Complete produces CO2 and water

- Incomplete produces CO or C and water

- CO is carbon monoxide, which is colourless and odourless and binds to the hemoglobin in red blood cells (toxic)

- Halogens react via radical subsitution (initiation, propagation, termination)

- Initation via UV to split the halogen into free radicals

- Propagation, where the halogen free radical reacts in and out of the alkane, forming more free radicals by replacing hydrogen

- Termination, where two free radicals react together and stop reacting

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