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Types and Distribution of Cities

Millionaire cities have populations of over 1 million.
Mega cities have populations of over 10 million.
World cities are major centres for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science
and mass media serving the whole world.

Until the 1950s, the biggest cities were the…

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Urbanisation is the proportion of urban dwellers in a country or region.
Urban growth describes an absolute increase in the number of urban dwellers.
When urbanisation increases there is a relative shift of population from rural to
urban areas.
Urbanisation can be caused by a concentration of investment which…

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Overpopulation where large families are not enough to survive.
Insufficient food because of poor farming methods and a low output.
Mechanisation means less people are needed on farms.
Natural disasters in rural areas.
Lack of services in rural areas.
Poor housing conditions with few basic amenities like running water in…

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Very poor conditions with sights and smells that are unknown to the west.
It is a hive of activity with a large number of industries that recycle 90% of all
waste and produce quality leather goods, garments, pottery and plastics.
Lots of cottage industries that generate around $40m worth of…

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In the UK, large scale suburbanisation was essentially a 20th century phenomenon.
Suburban development mainly comprised lowdensity housing and industry on
Greenfield sites.
Causes of suburbanisation include:
Expanding urban populations and a shortage of housing or space.
Rising standards of living with demands for higher quality at lower density.

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The population of Bradford is expected to grow by 140,000 between 2009
and 2026.
This is due to immigration and the city's youthful age structure.
One effect will be a large increase in the demand for affordable housing with
50,000 extra houses needed.
Some houses will be on brownfield sites…

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It is therefore seen as the opposite of urbanisation.
Counterurbanisation was an important process in the changing geography of
population in the UK between the 70s and 90s.
In the UK it involved urban dwellers migrating from metropolitan counties such as
London to rural counties such as Berkshire.
Counterurbanisation is…

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and housing shortages. Also, there may be inadequate
services, environmental pollution and unemployment. The
growth of informal settlements raises issues of
sustainability, policing and international image.
Puts pressure on the rural urban fringe. May cause
Suburbanisation greenfield sites to be built upon. Conflicts with residents and
planners may occur as…

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This may involve the relocation of businesses, demolition of structures and the
relocation of people.
Although regeneration can be done by nongovernment (gentrification), it is usually
driven by the government.

In the 1980s and 90s the government favoured propertyled regeneration.
12 Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) were set up…

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This developed because of the area's natural resources such as iron ore, water
power and coal.
Park Hill is a huge estate of flats built in the 1960s.
It was designed to replace some of the slums left at the end of the 1800s that
housed Sheffield factory workers.


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