WJEC chem 1 higher tier

WJEC chemistry 1 higher tier. I used these in january and achieved an A* (: sorry for any spelling mistakes.

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Chemistry
MASH­ metal + acid--salt + hydrogen
1man + wife--mini him + her
Group 1 metal + water--metal hydroxide + hydrogen
Acids can't stand cold water
Acid + carbonate (metal) - salt + co2 + water
Mad otters always sing wonderfully
Metal oxide + acid--salt + water
Acid + alkali--salt + water
Salt­ the hydrogen in an acid replaced by a metal
Exothermic­ give out more energy than they take in (-) - temp increases
Endothermic­ take in more energy than they give out (+) - temp falls
Energy to brake bonds-- energy to make bonds= answer.
Hydrogen only releases water when burnt
Nano particles
1-100nm
Antibacterial and antifungal properties
Wound dressing and refrigerators
Different properties to their stock size elements (versions)
Many properties are unknown
Can penetrate skin
May cause cancer
Combustion
e.g.
Propane + oxygen -> carbon dioxide and water
Carbon monoxide may be produces from incomplete combustion
Viscosity- how thick and unrunny it is
Crude oil is a hydrocarbon
Hydrogen is the only fuel which does not produce damaging gases- only produces water vapour
Half strength acid- half amount of product produced
Acids contain hydrogen
Alkali contain hydroxide
Bromine ­ red brown liquid
Iodine- brown yellow liquid/ blue/purple solid
Chlorine- green gas
Chlorides--white precipitate
Bromides­ cream precipitate
Iodides­ yellow precipitates
Group 1­ alkali metals
Group 2­ alkaline earth metals
Centre block­ transition metals
Groups 3-6­ non gases
Group 7--halogens
Group 8/0--noble gases.
Incomplete combustion­ carbon monoxide present
Avoid incomplete combustion­ constant flow of oxygen
Every gas that doesn't have a full outer shell goes around in pairs e.g. hydrogen
Elements in the same group react similarly
Metal + water = metal hydroxide

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Metal + oxide = metal oxide
Lithium­ red
Calcium­ orange/red
Lithium­ orange/yellow
Copper­ green
Potassium­ lilac
Magnesium­ bright white sparks
Halogens--toxic vapours
Chlorine­ orange yellow
Bromine0 green
Iodine­ purple/pink
Group 1 metal-
Highly reactive ­ stored in oil, low melting point and low density, form strongly alkaline hydroxides.
Group 2­
Reactivity increases as you go down.
Transition metals-
Typical metal properties­ hard, strong, ideal for manufacturing.
Group 7­ the halogens
A reactive halogen can displace a less reactive element from a solution of salts.…read more

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Fossil fuels­ coal oil and gas­ formed from plant and animal remain millions years ago.
Crude oil­ a mixture of hydrocarbons--gases, liquids or solids.
Hydrocarbon­ a compound of hydrogen and carbon only.
Fraction distillation­ the method used to separate crude oil. Produces gas, petrol
Fractional column­ the temp is hot at the bottom and cool at the top­ gases condense diff heights. More flammable as you
go up.
Fraction­ the liquid collected which contains a small range of boiling points.
Combustion­ burning in air.…read more

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