organic chem

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  • Created on: 27-02-18 11:51
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  • organic chem
    • crude oil is a mixture of different compounds. many are hydrocarbons and are alkanes.
      • crude oil is a fossil fuel that is found underground under rocks. formed by remains of sea creatures- mainly plankton buried in mud.
      • crude oil is a form od ancient biomass and is remains of sea creatures. it is a finite resource as we use it we cannot replace it.
    • fractional distillation of crude oil
      • hydrocarbons have different boiling points and to separate them they use fractional distillation.
        • fractional distillation is a separation technique that separates miscible liquids with different boiling points
        • in each fraction the hydrocarbons contain a similar number of carbon atoms
      • crude oil is heated and vaporized. vaporized crude oil enters the fractional tower where it is hotter at the bottom than at the top .
        • hydrocarbons cool as they rise and condense at different heights due to their different boiling points.
      • larger molecules are collected as liquids near the bottom of the tower whereas the small molecules collect at the top.
    • cracking
      • shorter alkanes are higher in demand so cracking takes place to make them shorter so they can be used for fuels
      • produces unsaturated hydrocarbons called alkenes which can be used as a starting material to make many other substances such as polymers and medicines
      • catalytic cracking- heat alkanes to vaporise  them they then pass over a hot catalyst
      • steam cracking-heat alkanes to vaporise them, mixed with steam and then heated to very high temperatures
    • alkenes
      • homologous series of unsaturated alkenes. contain carbon double bond. eg ethene, propene, butene and pentene


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