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Slide 1

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Sophia-Anna Kyriacou 11i…read more

Slide 2

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Hard Water
· Hard water contains dissolved compounds,
usually of calcium or magnesium. These
compounds are dissolved when water comes
into contact with rocks.
· Hard Water reacts with soap to form scum
and so more soap is needed to form lather.…read more

Slide 3

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How to reduce scum
in a hard water area
· Scum is formed by precipitation of insoluble
metal salts found as an acid form in soap,
(sodium stearate), and hard water, (calcium
and magnesium).
· Soap less detergents do not form scum as
there are no stearate ions to react with the
dissolved metal ions in water.…read more

Slide 4

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Soft Water
· Soft water contains a few or even none ion
· Therefore, soft water readily forms a lather
with soap.…read more

Slide 5

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Hardness of Water and Scale
· Permanent hard water remains hard when it is
· Temporary hard water is softened by boiling.
· When temporary hard water is heated it can
produce scale that reduces the efficiency of
heating systems.…read more

Slide 6

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Water Softening
· Permanent hard water is softened by
removing the dissolved calcium and
magnesium ions.
· Temporary hard water can be softened by
simply boiling it.
· Both types can also be softened using an ion-
exchange column.…read more

Slide 7

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Slide 8

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Slide 9

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