Ventilation and heart beat AQA AS/A2 Biology EXAM QUESTIONS

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Q1. The diagram shows the pathways in the heart for the conduction of electrical impulses
during the cardiac cycle.
(a) The table shows the blood pressure in the left atrium, the left ventricle and the aorta
at different times during part of a cardiac cycle.
Blood pressure / kPa
Time / s Left atrium Left ventricle Aorta
0.0 0.5 0.4 10.6
0.1 1.2 0.7 10.6
0.2 0.3 6.7 10.6
0.3 0.4 17.3 16.0
0.4 0.8 8.0 12.0
(i) At which time is blood flowing into the aorta?
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(1)
(ii) Between which times are the atrioventricular valves closed?
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(1)
(b) The maximum pressure in the left ventricle is higher than the maximum pressure in
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What causes this difference in pressure?
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(1)
(c) The information below compares some features of different blood vessels.
Blood vessel
Artery Capillary Vain
Mean diameter
4.0 mm 8.0 m 5.0 mm
of vessel
Property
Mean thickness
1.0 mm 0.5 m 0.5 mm
of wall
Relative thickness (shown by length of bar)
Endothelium
Tissues Elastic tissue
present in
wall
Muscle
Use the information to explain how the structures of the walls of arteries, veins and
capillaries are related to their functions.
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Total 9 marks)
Q2. The photographs show sections through alveoli of healthy lung tissue and lung tissue
from a person with emphysema. Both photographs are at the same magnification.
Biophoto Associates, Science Photolibrary
(a) Give two differences that can be seen between the healthy lung tissue and the lung
tissue from the person with emphysema.
1 ...................................................................................................................
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(2)
(b) People with emphysema may find it difficult to climb stairs. Explain why.
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Total 5 marks)
Q3. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease of the lungs. Describe the transmission and
course of infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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(5)
(b) Emphysema is another disease of the lungs. People with emphysema may feel
weak and tired. Explain why.
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Total 10 marks)
Q4. The diagram shows a human heart as seen from the front. The main blood vessels
are labelled D to G. The arrows show the pathways taken by the electrical activity involved
in coordinating the heartbeat in the cardiac cycle.…read more

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Explain, in terms of pressure, why the semilunar valves open.
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(1)
(c) When a wave of electrical activity reaches the AVN, there is a short delay before a
new wave leaves the AVN. Explain the importance of this short delay.
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(2)
(d) The table shows the cardiac output and resting heart rate of an athlete before and
after completing a training programme.…read more

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Calculate the athlete's stroke volume after training. Show your working.
.............................. cm 3
(2)
(ii) Use information from the table to explain how training has caused the resting
heart rate of this athlete to be lower.
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)
Q5. A doctor measured the volume of air in the lungs of two people over a period of 7
seconds. Both people were resting. One person was healthy. The other had emphysema.
The results are shown in the table.…read more

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What evidence in the
T
table supports this statement?
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(1)
(b) Calculate the rate at which person A
breathed air out of his lungs between 0 and 3
seconds. Show your working.
Answer ............................................. dm s 3 ­1
(2)
(c) Person B has emphysema. Give one p
iece of evidence from the table that shows
this.
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(1)
(d) Emphysema reduces the efficiency of gas exchange in the lungs. Explain why.
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(4)
(Total 8 marks)
Q6. (a) (i) The human heart has four chambers.
In which one of the four chambers of the human heart does pressure reach
the highest value?
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(1)
(ii) Explain how the structure of this chamber causes this high pressure.
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(1)
The table shows the volume of blood in a man's right ventricle at different
times during one cardiac cycle.
Time / s Volume of blood / cm 3
0.…read more

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Use the data in the table to calculate the man's heart rate.
Heart rate = ............................................. beats per minute
(ii) Use the data in the table and your answer to part (b) (i) to calculate the man's
cardiac output. Show your working.
Cardiac output = ........................................ cm per minute
3
(3)
(c) Use information from the table to complete the table below to show whether the
valves
are open or closed at each of the times shown. Write open or closed in the
appropriate boxes.…read more

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