Unit 4 Research Methods


So this is a powerpoint containing all the research method points and notes on all of it. It is basic, but i have tried to mainly simplify and at the sam etime add all relevent stuff in.

I hope this powerpoint is helpfull, i certainly found making it helpful, but if you let me know how i can ammend and improve it if this needs doing, please let me know, if the powerpoint is heplful please let me know also ^^

Good luck

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Research Methods
Application of scientific method in psychology Reliability, Objectivity, Falsifiablity, Empiricism, Control, Theory Construction
(Induction & Deduction) and Hypothesis Testing
Peer Review (purpose, types and criticism)
Design psychological investigations Appropriate research method (Field, Natural, Observation, Libratory, Case Studies)
Sampling Strategies (Random, volunteer, sampling, Opportunity & their + & -)
Reliability (assessment, issues, types & improving)
Validity (types, assessing & improving)
Ethical Considerations (Deception, Confidentiality, Privacy, Consent...)
Data analysis & reporting on investigations Graphical Representations (Bear Chart, Scatter Diagram...)
Type 1 & Type 2 errors
Statistical tests
Inferential analysis (Spearman's Rho, Mann-Witney U, Wilcoxon, Chi-squared)
Qualitative data (analysis & interpretation)
Reporting Psychological Investigations (into, methods, participants, appendices...)…read more

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Objectivity: The experimenter is separate and unbiased with what they are studying
Empiricism: Knowledge is based upon evidence gathered (facts not theories)
Replicability: Testable procedures which can be repeated & still have the same results
Falsifiability: To prove a theory wrong by testing the hypotheses
Control: Demonstrates casual relationships to enable them to predict & control. (no control
as otherwise variables may be different)
Induction Deduction
Observations Observations
Purpose Theory
Conduct a study
to test the
Conduct a study
to test the
Purpose Theory
Conclusion…read more

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Reviews asses
the credibility
Reviews will
and rating of
correct any
uni research
3 main mistakes
Purposes found before In order to collect research to prove need for
allocating funds
of Peer it is published governmental funding (cancer research.....)
or quality of
Review into scientific
findings (RAE-
journals and
Some are
research and
Peer others to
blogs, Some give opportunity to edit in order to improve
Review & comment
Wikipedia, the accuracy of research. BUT edits may be false
the but not edit
journals or deliberately changed to be incorrect
internet which is
reliable and
Reviews of research Peer review is an assessment of scientific
Anonymit undertaken by those Science may
y: veils
who know the change due to work by others of the same profession/level
researcher it may be `shifts in
and honest if a + opinion' and in the same field.
allows relationship, but if a ­ peer review
more relationship can result may highlight
reviews as
in bias reviews, this in Peer review is to ensure that any research
deliberately scientific
no bias is sabotaging results and conducted & published is of a high quality &
created ruin credibility.
standard.…read more

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Questionnaire &
Observation Laboratory Laboratory Interview
+Purely Natural +Variable Control +Replication +Large Sampling
Depending on how observed
(observer in group or individually)
-Lack of mundane realism + Can draw casual conclusion -Self Report
Sampling methods time consuming
and possibly bias
-Lack of ecological validity -Sample Bias -Misleading questions
-Observer bias -Time Consuming
Natural Field Case Studies Content Analysis
+Ecological Validity +Replicable +Detailed Quantative & Qualitive data
+Mundane Realism -Time Consuming +Longitudinal +High ecological validity
-No Control -Sample Bias +Good Sources +Replicable
-Can't Control Realism -Can't be Generalised -Observer bias…read more

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Usually · Advertisements · Those available
computerised used at time · Take Nth Term
sampling (sometimes £ · +Quick & easy person
unmethodical used) · Target intended to
· -Bias
selected be representative
· +Quick & Easy
(generalised) of
· + Avoids bias as · +Responsive target population
everyone has a Opportunity SamplingVolunteer Sampling Random
Stratified & quota Sampling
· -Bias · +Avoids bias
· + Quick & Easy
· +Representative · -Participants may
of target not want to
population participate
· -Time
Consuming…read more

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Internal Inter-rater External
Consistency the same (Questionnaire, Consistency between different researchers Same results produced whenever
Interview) in a test (generalised)
A high + correlation between scores of different
Comparing two halves of psychological
Test ­retest observers
score & see if the same
Same scores on different occasions Number of agreement ÷ how many times seen
Pilot Study
· Small-scale study
· See flaws
Operationalising Variables
· Variables that can be easily tested
· (clear aim terms, specific)
Standardised Procedures
· Ambiguous variables
· Specific procedure and easily measurable…read more

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