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Photolysis energy from excited electrons in chlorophyll a is used to split H2O molecules to
protons, electrons and oxygen.
Water protons + electrons + oxygen
2H2O 4H+ + 4e- + O2
Photophosphorylation energy containing electrons pass along a series of electron carriers in
thylakoid membranes. These carries form an electron transport chain. (Look at ETC in
ADP + Pi + [energy from excited electrons] ATP
Reduced NADP production electrons cannot directly react with CO2. The excited electrons in
chlorophyll a are transferred to NADP, forming reduced NADP. This requires energy. With each
electron NADP takes, it also accepts a proton and therefore has a neutral charge.
NADP + protons + electrons reduced NADP
NADP + H+ + e- reduced NADP
Light independent CO2 combines with RuBP, the reaction being catalysed by rubisco. This
forms an intermediate 6C molecule which immediately splits into two 3C molecules called
glycerate3phosphate. ATP and electrons from reduced NADP (both from light dependent) is
used to reduce G3P to triose phosphate. 5/6 TP is used to regenerate RuBP. 1/6 is used to make
a hexose sugar. So the Calvin cycle needs to turn 6 times to make 1 hexose sugar.
Photosynthesis & Respiration
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