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Ajay Rai


Light dependent:

Photolysis ­ energy from excited electrons in chlorophyll a is used to split H2O molecules to
protons, electrons and oxygen.

Water protons + electrons + oxygen

2H2O 4H+ + 4e- + O2

Photophosphorylation ­ energy containing electrons pass along a series of electron carriers in…

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Ajay Rai


Glycolysis 2 ATP molecules add two phosphate groups to the glucose molecule, producing a
phosphorylated 6C sugar. This is then broken down to 2 triose phosphate molecules, a 3C sugar.
These are then converted to pyruvate, an oxidation reaction as electrons are removed from TP
and transferred…

Page 3

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Ajay Rai

The lactic acid produced when pushing muscles to the limit is toxic, and needs to be removed
from respiring cells and broken down. It diffuses into the blood plasma and carried away in
solution. The liver cells absorb it and metabolise it. For this to happen however, oxygen…


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