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  • Populations

Birth, death, immigration, emigration.

Life expectency calculated at 50% of living population.

Random sampling = everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being picked.

Systematic sampling = choosing every Nth person.

Intraspecific = same species

Interspecific = different species.

Directional selection - changes characteristics

Stabilising selection - preserves characteristics


LIGHT DEPENDENT: In the thylakoids, chlorophyll absorbs light which excites electrons, they leave the chlorophyll and go to the electron carrier which is reduced. Electrons move through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions and lose energy at each stage. Pi + ADP = ATP

LIGHT INDEPENDENT: In the stroma, 1C molecule combines with RuBP with the help of the enzyme Rubisco. 2 molecules of Glycerate 3-phosphate are formed. 2 molecules of ATP and NADP are reduced, this forms 2 molecules of triose phosphate. 1C atom leaves a triose phosphate molecule. ATP is broken down and RuBP is reformed.


GLYCOLYSIS: in the cytoplasm, 2 ATP molecules are broken down to produce phosphorylated glucose. The phosphorylated glucose is split into 2 molecules of triose phosphate. 2 NAD molecules are used up and 4 molecules of ATP are produced, two pyruvate molecules are formed.

LINK REACTION: in the matrix, NAD is reduced, forming acetate from pyruvate. Coenzyme A combines with acetate


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