Unit 1 (12 marker plans)

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Social Points for outline/description Points for evaluation
Influence
Outline and Normative influence Research on relationship
evaluate · Based on human's need for between people's normative
normative and social companionship and fear behaviour and likelihood of
informational of rejection, i.e. gain approval them taking up smoking.
social influence and avoid rejection. · When told that the majority of
· Person needs to feel they're their peers didn't smoke, their
being observed. chances of beginning was less.
· Conform in public, don't · Used to manipulate people to
necessarily internalise the view, act more responsibly. E.g.
as it doesn't carry over into energy conservation, hotel told
private settings. customers 75% of customers
· Doesn't last long. reuse their towels, decreased
Informational influence towel use by 25% (normative
· When someone accepts info message).
from others as evidence about · Support claim that people
reality. shape their behaviour for desire
· Based on need to feel confident to fit in.
that they're perceptions and Research on how exposure
beliefs are right. to other people's beliefs
· Rely on the opinions of others, influences on social
especially people who are stereotypes.
experts or in ambiguous · PPs exposed to negative info on
situations. African americans (thought it
· Changes their behaviour to fit in. was majority view), reported
· Example of internalisation as neg views of a black individual.
changes both public and private They're adoptive.
attitudes.
Outline and Asch's conformity on an Place and time it was done.
evaluate ambiguous task · In US, high conformity as
research into · Lab experiment, PPs judged line people were too scared to go
conformity lengths and said which was the against the majority due ti
same as the standard line out going through strong
loud. anticommunist period.
· 1 PP, rest confederates. sat at · Couldn't replicate results (only
end. 1 response of 396 CTs was
· 18 trials, 12 (critical Ts) confeds conforming)
gave same wrong answer · Probationers and probation
(average conformity rate 33%) officers as PPs and confeds =
· Noticed individual difference similar results to Asch
conformity rates · Suggesting theres a higher
· Though they continued to trust chance of conformity if there
their own judgments (internally) are consequences
but changed their behaviour ·
publicly. Giving wrong answers Cultural variations in
to avoid disapproval (showing conformity.
compliance). · Analysed results of Aschtype
Variables affecting studies
conformity · E.g. Individualist cultures, US &
· Europe had a lower conformity
rate at 25% than collectivist

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Africa and Asia at
37%.
· Suggested that there is a higher
conformity rate in collectivist
cultures as its view more
positively as it brings people
together.
Outline and Zimbardo Conformity to roles isn't
evaluate · To observe the interaction automatic
Zimbardo's between the 2 groups in the · *Z believed the guards
research into absence of an obvious authority becoming sadistic was the
social roles figure.…read more

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Outline and Milgram Ethical issues
evaluate · PPs told it was a study on how · Lack of concern for wellbeing of
research into punishment affects learning. PPs.
obedience · 2 confeds, experimenter and · Deceived, not saying really purpose.
`other participant' Making it impossible for PP to make
· `Learner' had to remember word an informed decision about
pairs and when wrong was participant.
administered increasingly strong · No right to withdraw, claimed they
shocks from the teacher.…read more

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Outline and F scale
evaluate the · AP, possible explanation why ·
authoritarian some require little pressure to ·
personality obey. FS used to measure ·
explanation of components that make up AP.
obedience · Agreeing to the questions was ·
indicative authoritarian
personality.
· APs rigid thinkers who obeyed
authority, see world and black
and white, enforced strict
Following of social rules and
hierarchies.
· Scored high = raised in a
authoritarian family with strong
emphasis on obedience and
require same attitudes.…read more

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Outline and
evaluate the · ·
role of social · ·
influence · ·
processes in
social control · ·
Memory Points for outline/description Points for evaluation
Outline and STM = Immediate events, measured in Ca: Individual differences
evaluate the secs and mins (short duration), disappear · Not same for everyone. Jacobs
nature of short unless rehearsed, limited capacity of found recall (digit span) increased
term memory around 4 chunks, coded acoustically. with age.…read more

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Suggesting STM largely encoded
acoustically
Outline and LTM = Memory for events in the past, Cod: LTM may not be exclusively
evaluate the lasts from 2mins to 100yrs, semantic
nature of long potentially unlimited duration and · May not be true that its always
term memory capacity and tends to be coded coded semantically.
semantically. · Showed that longterm recall was
Capacity " related visual.
· Unlimited · Found evidence of acoustic coding
Duration " in LTM.…read more

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Outline and SR Supporting: Brain scans
evaluate the · Where info is held at each of the · Controlled lab studies on Ca, Du &
multi store senses. En support existence of separate
model of · Capacity is very large. STM & LTM stores = basis of MSM.
memory · Constantly receiving info, but most · Studies using brain scan techniques
receive no attention. show theres a difference between
Multistorey · There for a very brief period. the 2.…read more

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Outline and Basis of WMM, preforming 2 visual tasks Evidence from braindamaged
evaluate the at same time you do worse than if patients (strengths)
working you were to do two different types · KF, shortterm forgetting of auditory
memory model (e.g. a visual and sound task) then info was better than visual stimuli.
you'll perform better as theres no · Auditory problems limited to verbal
interference. Suggesting that theres materials e.g. letters but not
different stores. meaningful sounds (e.g. phone
Central executive (CE) ringing).…read more

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Outline and Episodic Distinguishing procedural and
evaluate types · Explicit declarative memories
pf long term · `knowing that' · HM study = ability to form new LTM
memory · Personal experience was affected by destruction of the
· May recall the time, place and who hippocampus but retained
was there. Context surending event preexisting LTM.
(what happened before, after or why · Still able to form new procedural
you were there). Recall associated memories but not episodic or
emotions that you felt at the time.…read more

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Outline and Leading questions Supporting evidence for effect of
evaluate · 45 students, shown 7 different traffic MI
research into accident films, questionnaire, · Students asked to evaluate
the effect of important q: one group were given advertising material about Disney.
misleading question with "hit", the other 4 were · Three conditions. Bugs bunny, Ariel
information on given the verbs "smashed, collided, or a control (no MI).
EWT bumped" etc.…read more

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