Unit 1 Psychology AS

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  • Unit 1 Psychology
    • Attachment
      • Disruption
        • Privation
          • Failure to form an attachment.
          • Case Studies
            • Curtis- Genie
              • Failed to form attachments with her parents. She was locked in her bedroom tied to either her cot or potty chair.
              • Genie was discovered aged 13.
                • She had a bunny like walk, she could only say "stopit" & "nomore".
                • Her vocabulary improved but she never mastered grammar. She never became a fully functioning adult.
            • Koluchova- Czech Twins
              • Mother died, looked after by aunt. After 1 year they went to live with their dad. Stepmother locked them in cellar, found aged 7.
              • They had rickets, couldn't understand images, no speech.
        • Deprivation
          • An attachment has formed but has been either temporarily or permanently disrupted.
          • Bowlby 44 thieves (17 thieves experience frequent separation, compared with 2 in control group), 44 emotionally disturbed. 14 thieves were psychopaths, 12/14 experienced separation.
          • Robertson & Robertson- 3 stages of separation. protest, despair, detachment.
        • Institutionalisation
          • Rutter- 100 Romanian orphans. Adopted before 6 months- normal emotional development, after 6 months- disinhibited attachments.
          • Hodges & Tizard- 65 children in IC. Some adopted, restored or stayed there. Those restored, lees likely to form attachment with mother.
      • Learning Theory
        • Operant Conditioning
          • Skinner's Box
          • Learning through consequence.
        • Classical Conditioning
          • Learning by association
          • Pavlov's Dogs
        • Harlow's monkeys- Monkey raised in isolation, shown 2 mothers. When scared monkey went to cloth mother (no food)- LT wrong.
      • Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory
        • Safety, emotional relationships, secure base for exploration, continuity hypothesis, monotrophy, innate, critical & sensitive period.
        • Social releases
        • Lorenz- Imprinting
      • Types of attachment- Mary Ainsworth
        • A- Insecure Avoidant 20%- Infants willing to explore surroundings, indifferent when PCG returns.
        • B- Secure 70%- strong & emotional bond with PCG, show stranger anxiety, PCG provides instant comfort.
        • C- Insecure Resistant 10%- Infant is a worrier, cries frequently, resistant to comfort.
        • D- Disorganised
      • Cultural variation
        • Israel
          • Equal attachments to both caregivers but greater reunion towards mother.
        • Germany
          • Parents keep a distance from children, hence insecure attachments.
        • Uganda
          • Sensitive responsive mothers
        • Japan
          • Infants rarely experience separation.
      • Day Care
        • Sylva- High quality day care, least aggressive.
        • Belsky- 30+ hours of day care a week, more aggressive.
        • Leach- infants from London who attended day care had worse social development.
        • Campbell & Lamb- Long days in day care= less social development. More days but shorter periods, most socially developed.
    • Memory
      • Memory Improvement Strategies
        • Narrative Chaining
          • Creating a story.
        • Method of Loci
          • Hanging information in a familiar place.
        • Acronyms
          • Words formed out of the first letter of a string of words.
      • EWT
        • Anxiety
          • Yerkes Dobson Law
          • Christianson & Hubinette- 110 witnesses, between them has witnessed 22 bank robberies, some were bystanders, others employess. Employees had more accurate recall.
          • Loftus & Burns- Cond. 1- video of robbery, boy was shot. Cond. 2- no shooting.
          • Loftus
        • Age
          • Cohen & Falkner- 10 min video, child was kidnapped, given misleading info, elderly more influenced by MI.
          • Poole & Lyndsay- 3-8 year olds read story about science exp. Then told about one. Kids got stories muddled- unreliable EWT's.
          • King & Yuille- Video of crime. Kids thought basic things were as important as main features.
          • Karpel- Video of robbery. Younger people less influenced by leading questions & had more accurate recall.
        • Leading Questions
          • Loftus & Palmer- 45 students shown video of car crash.
            • Smashed 40.8 mph, collided, bumped, hit, contacted 31.8mph.
      • Cognitive Interview
        • Context Reinstatement
          • Getting the interviewee to close their eyes and imagine the scene, what they could see etc.
        • Report Everything
          • Interviewer asks interviewee to report everything they can remember despite how irrelevant it may seem.
        • Change Sequence
          • Getting the interviewee to recall events in reverse or going back to a certain point, ensures they don't make mistakes.
        • Change Perspective
          • What someone else might of seen.
      • Multi- Store Model
        • Structural theory, unitary stores, linear processing.
        • Duration STM- 18-20 seconds, LTM- Lifetime
        • Encoding STM- Acoustic, LTM- Semantic
        • Capacity STM: 7+/-2 chunks, LTM- Unlimited
        • Strengths- real world applications, HM (only remember pre-surgery), serial position curve.
          • SPC- PRIMACY: words heard first have been rehearsed so can be recalled from LTM. RECENCY: Words heard last are still in STM.
        • Weaknesses- Ignores the importance of processing, simplistic explanation of memory, KF (couldn't process verbal info)
      • Working Memory Model
        • Visuo Spatial Sketchpad
          • Independent, used for planning spatial tasks, concerned with what things look like and the relationship between them.Has a limited capacity.
        • Episodic Buffer
          • Added by Baddeley in 2000.
          • Extra store for information, limited capacity.
        • Central Executive
          • Controls processes, in charge, deligates, ensures no errors are made, divides attention, sets targets, decision making, coordination.
          • Modality free
        • Phonological Loop
          • Articulatory Loop
            • Inner Voice, linked to speech production, verbal rehearsal.
          • Phonological Store
            • Deals with the perception of sound.
          • Inner ear, acoustic, holds info, under control of central executive.
        • Strengths- Real life applications, KF
        • Weaknesses- Less informative than MSM, HM
  • Working Memory Model
    • Visuo Spatial Sketchpad
      • Independent, used for planning spatial tasks, concerned with what things look like and the relationship between them.Has a limited capacity.
    • Episodic Buffer
      • Added by Baddeley in 2000.
      • Extra store for information, limited capacity.
    • Central Executive
      • Controls processes, in charge, deligates, ensures no errors are made, divides attention, sets targets, decision making, coordination.
      • Modality free
    • Phonological Loop
      • Articulatory Loop
        • Inner Voice, linked to speech production, verbal rehearsal.
      • Phonological Store
        • Deals with the perception of sound.
      • Inner ear, acoustic, holds info, under control of central executive.
    • Strengths- Real life applications, KF
    • Weaknesses- Less informative than MSM, HM
  • Operant Conditioning
    • Skinner's Box
    • Learning through consequence.

Comments

Pete Langley - Get Revising founder

Amazing, complex mindmap!

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