Triumph of Elizabeth I Revision Notes/Timeline

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Date/Perio Event
1547 Death of Henry VIII .
Accession of Edward VI ­ problems with a minor on the throne as Edward V was possibly murdered by
Richard III.
Duke of Somerset appointed Lord Protector ­ Somerset overthrew the regency council and governed
with members of his household. He took control of the Privy Council which created resentment.
Publication of `Homily on Obedience' ­ reinforced the message that disobedience towards lawful
authority offended God's law. This was published due to fear that the public would not like the
Invasion of Scotland leading to victory at the Battle of Pinkie ­ by invading Scotland Somerset had
planned to enforce the marriage of Edward VI and the young Mary Queen of Scots. However, during
the war the English failed to enforce a naval blockade of the Firth of Forth which enabled the French to
reinforce their Scottish allies and bring MQS to France. The war cost £580,393.
Debasement of the coinage began ­ it raised £537,000 from 1547-1551, but worsened inflation. The
restoration of the coinage was the solution but not possible if Scotland was still garrisoned.
Repeal of Act of Six Articles .
Denunciation of images in London which reflected radical attitudes among churchmen ­ by
September all images had been removed from St. Paul's.
Royal injunctions issued which led to the attack of many features of popular Catholicism .
Dissolution of chantries as the Crown needed money to pay for expensive foreign policy .
1548 Enclosure commission established­ enclosure was considered to be the root of the socio-economic
Inflationary pressures.
1549 Execution of Sir Thomas Seymour ­ Seymour was left out of the regency council so was promoted to
Lord Admiral. He wanted to marry Elizabeth and plotted with Southampton against Somerset. Somerset
brought treason charges against him. Southampton denounced Seymour, gaining his readmission to the
Act of Uniformity Passed .
o Religion under Somerset was `chaotic' ­ Guy.
First Book of Common Prayer issued by Cranmer ­ this was a cautious move towards a more
Protestant position. It was issued due to a need for a uniform approach to religious services.
Inflationary pressures worsen .
Western Rebellion ­widespread resentment of the attack on popular religious practices and resentful
of the sheep tax. The rebels were eventually defeated by Russell who had gained enough troops
following a shortage due to the war with Scotland.
o `The closest thing Tudor England came to a class war' ­ Guy.
Kett Rebellion ­ widespread discontent at possible abuses in local government, response to
anti-enclosure proclamation. In attempts to suppress the rebels the Earl of Northampton moved to East
Anglia with 1,000 men. They managed to disperse the rebels at Bury St Edmunds but were defeated by
them at Norwich. Somerset was forced to send mercenaries under Warwick and the rebellion was
violently repressed.
o `An attempt to embarrass the government' ­ Bush.
Fall of Somerset ­ he was arrogant and dictatorial in manner and his style of government and policy
failure weakened him. For example, his policies had provoked rebellions, his country was in financial
disarray, he couldn't unite the Scottish and English crowns and faced the threat of losing French land.
The conservatives in government, Warwick, Southampton, Arundel and Lord St John, decided he should
go. Somerset felt the threat and ordered troops at his disposal but they didn't arrive. The council
arrested Somerset's key supporters. There was a standoff between conspirators and Somerset
o Northumberland brought him down by `a combination of ruthlessness and trickery' ­

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Duke of Northumberland (Warwick) made Lord President of the Council .
Repeal of sheep tax .
Treaty of Boulogne ­ stopped drain on Crown's finances through receiving £133,333 from the French as
payment for the return of Boulogne. This stopped national humiliation. Northumberland also improved
finances by ending the debasement of the coinage and increased revenue from the Church by melting
down plates.
Northumberland outmanoeuvred the conservatives on the Privy Council and added Protestants ­ he
dismissed Southampton and Arundel.
1552 Execution of Somerset .…read more

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Mary's third Parliament ­ resolved the status of the Church, compromise on church lands as many of
the political elite had benefitted financially from the acquisition of monastic land and did not want to
surrender. It was insisted that Pole must bring confirmation of the continued ownership of the lands in
secular hands, failure to do so could result in parliamentary blocking of the return of Catholicism. The
Pope and Pole insisted that the English Church should submit to Rome first.…read more

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Elizabeth and her ministers always intended that the settlement should be firmly
Protestant' ­ Hudson.
Royal Injunctions ­ made provision for the implementation of the Act of Uniformity at the level of the
individual parish church, required local officials to adopt a Protestant view of forms of worship and
practice in parish churches.
Matthew Parker appointed Archbishop of Canterbury .…read more

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Elizabeth again pressed by Parliament to marry.
Lord Darnley murders Mary Queen of Scots' Italian Secretary.
1567 Darnley is murdered and Mary is suspected `unfairly' .
Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate by Moray who declares her son, James, King and names
himself as regent .
Duke of Alva is in control of the Netherlands ­ he arrives with an army of 10,000 Spanish infantry and
is soon joined by many other recruits.…read more

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Ridolfi Plot­ Ridolfi was a Florentine banker who wanted to secure a Spanish landing at Harwich. They
would then march on London, overthrow Elizabeth and MQS would marry the Duke of Norfolk and
become Queen. The plot was uncovered when one of Ridolfi's messengers was apprehended and
tortured. The plot was never credible as it depended on Philip II who didn't want MQS on the throne.
Ridolfi may have been a double agent working for Burghley to secure evidence against MQS.…read more

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The division of the Dutch provinces ­ the Union of Utrecht (northern, Protestant) and the Union of
Arras (southern, Catholic). Philip makes peace with Arras which creates a new base for the Duke of
Parma to launch an invasion in the north.
1580 Arrival of first Jesuit missionaries in England ­ Jesuits combined high intelligence with a dedication to
the cause of the restoration of Catholicism to England.…read more

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Assassination of William of Orange, leader of the Dutch rebels against Spain ­ originally Orange was a
loyal supporter of the Spanish crown. However he became concerned about the centralising tendencies
of the Spanish in the Netherlands and the increasingly repressive nature of religious policies. He was
declared an outlaw in 1567 and became the leader of the Dutch rebels.…read more

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Successful English attack on Spanish fleet at Cadiz­ Drake attacked and destroyed more than 30
vessels at the cost of 300,000 crowns to the Spanish.
`Bill and Book' proposals reintroduced in the House of Commons by Anthony Cope ­ it was in support
of the execution of MQS, stated the desire for a Genevan prayer book and declared all existing Church
of England legislation null and void.
1588 Spanish Armada defeated ­ the death of the Marquis of Santa Cruz robbed Spain of a leader.…read more

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England to await payment of their ransom. This was military glory for Essex.
o The expedition had demonstrated `a muddle of contradictory purposes' ­ MacCaffery.
1597 Successive harvest failures lead to many deaths .
Poor Law passed - required every parish to appoint
Overseers of the Poor whose responsibility it was to
find work for the unemployed and to set up parish-houses for those incapable of supporting
Parliamentary agitation over monopolies - Monopolies were the exclusive right to sell patented goods
for private profit.…read more


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