Transition metal revision guide

Just a thing I made for revision for my test.

Minus redox titrations bc we haven't learnt it yet.

Includes a specification ticksheet at the end.

All info from Heinemann textbook.

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What are transition metals?
The transition elements are found in the d-block of the periodic
Across the d-block, the highest energy sub-shell is a d sub-shell
But not all d-block elements are transition elements
Two d-block elements that do not count as transition elements are
Scandium (Sc) and Zinc (Zn)
Scandium only forms the Sc3+ ion, with empty d-orbitals
Zinc only forms the Zn2+ ion, with completely full d-orbitals
Layla Gerami

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Electron configurations
[The electron configuration of an element is the arrangement of the
electrons in an atom of the element.…read more

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Properties of T.…read more

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Coloured compounds
When white light passes through a solution containing transition metal
ions, some of the wavelengths of visible light are absorbed.
The colour we observe is a mixture of the wavelengths of light that have
not been absorbed
Partially filled d-orbital = coloured compound
Catalysts increase the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an
alternative route for the reaction with a lower activation energy.…read more

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Precipitation reactions
[A precipitation reaction is one in which soluble ions, in separate
solutions, are mixed together to form an insoluble compound, settling
out as a solid. The solid is called a precipitate.]
Transition metal ions in aqueous solution react with aqueous NaOH to form
coloured precipitates.
Ion Observation with NaOH Equation
Cu2+ Blue solution of copper Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)Cu(OH)2(s)
(aq) (II) reacts to form a pale Precipitate is copper (II) hydroxide
blue precipitate.…read more

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Complex ions
In solution, the ions of transition metals form complex ions
Complex ions consist of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands.
[A ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons
to the central metal ion to form a coordinate bond.]
[A coordinate bond is one in which one of the bonded atoms
provides both electrons for the shared pair.]
[The coordination number is the total number of coordinate
bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands.…read more

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Bidentate ligands
Some ligands are bidentate
Can donate two lone pairs of electrons to the central metal ion to
form two coordinate bonds
Can form octahedral complexes
Can show cis-trans isomerism
Ethanedioate ion
Layla Gerami…read more

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A hexadentate ligand
A hexadentate ligand has six lone pairs of electrons, each forming a
coordinate bond to a metal ion in a complex ion.
e.g.…read more

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[Stereoisomers are species with the same structural and molecular
formula but a different arrangement of the atoms in space.]
You should be familiar with cis-trans in organic molecules, but as seen
earlier, transition ion complexes can show cis-trans isomerism as well.
Requirements...…read more

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Ligand substitution
[A ligand substitution reaction is one in which a ligand in a complex
ion is replaced by another ligand.]
Normally, water molecules in an aqueous solution of a complex ion are
replaced by another ligand.
Copper (II) aq ions and ammonia
[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+(aq) +4H2O (l)
Pale blue solution Deep blue solution
4 water ligands are replaced by 4 ammonia ligands.
The product has six ligands in an octahedral complex ion.…read more


Kelly Davies

brilliant thank you


do you have any more revision notes for any other topics?

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