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What are transition metals?
The transition elements are found in the d-block of the periodic

Across the d-block, the highest energy sub-shell is a d sub-shell
But not all d-block elements are transition elements


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Electron configurations
[The electron configuration of an element is the arrangement of the
electrons in an atom of the element.]
Electrons occupy orbitals in order of energy level
The sub-shell energy levels in the third and fourth energy levels overlap
The 4s sub-shell fills before the 3d sub-shell

Chromium and…

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Properties of T.metal compounds
Physical properties
They have normal metal properties

Good conductors
High density
High melting point and boiling point

Variable oxidation states
The transition elements form ions with two or more oxidation states

They all form compounds with ions in the +2 oxidation state

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Coloured compounds
When white light passes through a solution containing transition metal
ions, some of the wavelengths of visible light are absorbed.
The colour we observe is a mixture of the wavelengths of light that have
not been absorbed

Partially filled d-orbital = coloured compound

Catalysts increase the rate…

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Precipitation reactions
[A precipitation reaction is one in which soluble ions, in separate
solutions, are mixed together to form an insoluble compound, settling
out as a solid. The solid is called a precipitate.]

Transition metal ions in aqueous solution react with aqueous NaOH to form
coloured precipitates.

Ion Observation with…

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Complex ions
In solution, the ions of transition metals form complex ions

Complex ions consist of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands.

[A ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons
to the central metal ion to form a coordinate bond.]

[A coordinate bond is…

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multidentate ligands
Bidentate ligands
Some ligands are bidentate
Can donate two lone pairs of electrons to the central metal ion to
form two coordinate bonds
Can form octahedral complexes


Can show cis-trans isomerism

Ethanedioate ion

Layla Gerami

Page 8

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A hexadentate ligand
A hexadentate ligand has six lone pairs of electrons, each forming a
coordinate bond to a metal ion in a complex ion.

e.g. EDTA, used as a chelating agent (decreases concentration of metal ions
in solutions by binding them to a complex)

Detergent ­ binds to Ca…

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[Stereoisomers are species with the same structural and molecular
formula but a different arrangement of the atoms in space.]

You should be familiar with cis-trans in organic molecules, but as seen
earlier, transition ion complexes can show cis-trans isomerism as well.


Octahedral ­ coordination number of 6

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Ligand substitution
[A ligand substitution reaction is one in which a ligand in a complex
ion is replaced by another ligand.]

Normally, water molecules in an aqueous solution of a complex ion are
replaced by another ligand.

Copper (II) aq ions and ammonia
[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+(aq) +4H2O (l)


Kelly Davies

brilliant thank you


do you have any more revision notes for any other topics?

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