Transition metal revision guide

Just a thing I made for revision for my test.

Minus redox titrations bc we haven't learnt it yet.

Includes a specification ticksheet at the end.

All info from Heinemann textbook.

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What are transition metals?
The transition elements are found in the d-block of the periodic
table
Across the d-block, the highest energy sub-shell is a d sub-shell
But not all d-block elements are transition elements
A TRANSITION ELEMENT IS A D-BLOCK ELEMENT THAT
FORMS AT LEAST ONE ION WITH AN INCOMPLETE D
SUB-SHELL
Two d-block elements that do not count as transition elements are
Scandium (Sc) and Zinc (Zn)
Scandium only forms the Sc3+ ion, with empty d-orbitals
Zinc only forms the Zn2+ ion, with completely full d-orbitals
Layla Gerami

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Electron configurations
[The electron configuration of an element is the arrangement of the
electrons in an atom of the element.…read more

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Properties of T.…read more

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Coloured compounds
When white light passes through a solution containing transition metal
ions, some of the wavelengths of visible light are absorbed.
The colour we observe is a mixture of the wavelengths of light that have
not been absorbed
Partially filled d-orbital = coloured compound
Catalysts
Catalysts increase the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an
alternative route for the reaction with a lower activation energy.…read more

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Precipitation reactions
[A precipitation reaction is one in which soluble ions, in separate
solutions, are mixed together to form an insoluble compound, settling
out as a solid. The solid is called a precipitate.]
Transition metal ions in aqueous solution react with aqueous NaOH to form
coloured precipitates.
Ion Observation with NaOH Equation
Cu2+ Blue solution of copper Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)Cu(OH)2(s)
(aq) (II) reacts to form a pale Precipitate is copper (II) hydroxide
blue precipitate.…read more

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Complex ions
In solution, the ions of transition metals form complex ions
Complex ions consist of a central metal ion surrounded by ligands.
[A ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons
to the central metal ion to form a coordinate bond.]
[A coordinate bond is one in which one of the bonded atoms
provides both electrons for the shared pair.]
[The coordination number is the total number of coordinate
bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands.…read more

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Bidentate ligands
Some ligands are bidentate
Can donate two lone pairs of electrons to the central metal ion to
form two coordinate bonds
Can form octahedral complexes
[Ni(NH2CH2CH2NH2)3]2+
Can show cis-trans isomerism
Ethanedioate ion
Layla Gerami…read more

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A hexadentate ligand
A hexadentate ligand has six lone pairs of electrons, each forming a
coordinate bond to a metal ion in a complex ion.
e.g.…read more

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Stereoisomerism
[Stereoisomers are species with the same structural and molecular
formula but a different arrangement of the atoms in space.]
You should be familiar with cis-trans in organic molecules, but as seen
earlier, transition ion complexes can show cis-trans isomerism as well.
Requirements...…read more

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Ligand substitution
[A ligand substitution reaction is one in which a ligand in a complex
ion is replaced by another ligand.]
Normally, water molecules in an aqueous solution of a complex ion are
replaced by another ligand.
Copper (II) aq ions and ammonia
[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+(aq) +4H2O (l)
Pale blue solution Deep blue solution
4 water ligands are replaced by 4 ammonia ligands.
The product has six ligands in an octahedral complex ion.…read more

Comments

Kelly Davies

brilliant thank you

Naeemah

do you have any more revision notes for any other topics?

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