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Topic II
Labelling Theory…read more

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The Social Construction Of Crime: Becker
"Social groups create deviance by creating rules whose infraction constitutes
deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labelling them as
A deviant is someone whom the label has been applied successfully
Moral entrepreneurs lead `moral crusades' to have the law changed
This creates new rules and groups of outsiders
Creation or expansion of social control agency to enforce the rules and impose labels
Social control agencies may campaign for a change in law themselves
Whether a person is labelling depends on factors e.g. appearance, background…read more

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The Negotiation Of Justice: Cicourel
Officers typifications led them to concentrate on certain groups
Resulted in the law enforcement showing a class bias in working class areas
Other control agents of social control reinforced this bias
Probation officers heled the common-sense theory that juvenile delinquency was
caused by broken homes and lone partnering
Justice is not fixed but negotiable
Official crime statistics do not give a valid picture of patterns of crime and
cannot be used as resource
Instead we should investigate the process that created them…read more

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Primary & Secondary Deviance: Lamert
Primary deviance refers to an act which has not been publicly labelled e.g.
It is pointless to seek the cause of primary deviance as it is so widespread
Secondary deviance is when the act is labelled ­ it is the result of social
Once the induvial is labelled, it becomes their `master status'
This can lead to the `self-fulling prophecy'…read more

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Jock Young
Uses the concept of secondary deviance in his study of hippy marijuana users
Once tighter control was placed on drug usage, more hippies were arrested
They retreated into closed groups and developed a deviant subculture…read more

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Evaluation: Advantages
Shows that the law is not fixed
Shows how the law is enforced in discriminatory ways
Acknowledges that crime records are more a reflection of control agents as
posed to actual crime themselves
Recognises the role of power in creating deviance
Explains why people tend to join subcultures
Covers a broad range of crime
Explains the role of society in creating crime
Stratification shows the W/C are more prone to crime…read more

Slide 7

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