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Extraction of Metals…read more

Slide 2

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What is Titanium?
> The Main Points
· Strong + light metal
· Highly resistant to corrosion
· Excellent strength at high temperature
· A low density metal (half the density of steel)
· Does not condense....
Because it forms a
layer of protective
oxide when exposed
to air
(just like Aluminium)…read more

Slide 3

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Despite being more
abundant than copper,
less is produced.
"WHY?" you ask...…read more

Slide 4

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A rock that contains a
mineral worth extracting
The Main Ores
> Rutile /Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
> Ilmenite/Iron compound (FeTiO3)
Carbon Reduction:
Attempts to reduce TiO2 with this process is not a
good idea as the product Titanium Carbide is
produced and makes the metal brittle and useless!…read more

Slide 5

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The Extraction of Titanium
The furnace used does
not operate continuously
A Batch process therefore has to be
cooled down after every
with several stages ... operation
Step 1: TiO2 TiCl4
TiO2 is converted into TiCl4 by heating the TiO2 to around 900 C
with Carbon in a stream of Chlorine gas
TiO2 (g) 2Cl2 (g) 2C (s) TiCl4 (g) 2CO (g)
Step 2 : TiCl4 is purified
The Titanium Chloride is then purified by Fractional Distillation
under an inert atmosphere of Argon or Nitrogen…read more

Slide 6

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Step 3: Kroll Process
The Titanium can now be extracted from its chloride by the
Kroll Process in a furnace at almost 1000 C. During this
process the TiCl4 is heated with a MORE reactive metal i.e.
Sodium (Na) or Magnesium (Mg)
Reducing agents
Using these reducing agents, it is performed in an inert
atmosphere such as Helium (He) or Argon (Ar) and in an
unreactive chamber to prevent side reactions.
The overall reduction process is a Displacement reaction
For instance, using Na as the reducing agent:
TiCl4 (g) 4Na (l) Ti(s) 4NaCl (l)
Using Mg as the reducing agent:
TiCl4 (g) 2Mg (l) Ti(s) 2MgCl2 (l)…read more

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