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Biology Unit 5
Topic 7: Run for your life
4. Recall the way in which muscles, tendons, the
skeleton and ligaments interact to enable movement,
including antagonistic muscle pairs, extensors and
Bone strong and hard, but light to enable movement.
Cartilage hard but flexible tissue which is elastic and able to withstand compressive forces.
It is a good shock absorber and is frequently found between bones and in the joints.
Tendons strong but relatively inelastic tissue. It joins muscles to bones, and provides a little
Ligaments hold bonds together and in correct alignment, both around the joint and within
the joint itself. They're elastic to allow movement and give strength and elasticity.
Synovial fluid a liquid lubricant which fills the joint cavity and ensures easy friction-free
Muscles allows movement of the body by the work of antagonistic muscle pairs.
Antagonistic muscle pairs one pulls the bone in one direction, the other pulls it back to its
Extensor muscle muscle which by its contraction straightens a limb.
Flexor muscle muscle which by its extension straightens a limb. When it contracts, it bends
Movement is made more flexible with joints. Here, ligaments hold bones together. They limit the
movement thus preventing dislocation and keep the skeleton in correct alignment. The joints move
due to the force of muscles acting on them. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons that are
made of collagen fibres. When a muscle contracts, the tendon and its' attached bone are pulled
towards the contracting muscle. Many joints work due to the action of antagonistic muscles; one set
causes the joint to move one way, the other set causes it to return. When one muscle in the pair
is contracting, the other is relaxing (not stretching). The synovial joint reduces friction and acts as a
Text Book: p.150 - 151